skip to main content
OSTI.GOV title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: The Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment (MC3E) sounding network: operations, processing and analysis

Abstract

The Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment (MC3E) took place during the spring of 2011 centered in north-central Oklahoma, USA. The main goal of this field campaign was to capture the dynamical and microphysical characteristics of precipitating convective systems in the US Central Plains. A major component of the campaign was a six-site radiosonde array designed to capture the large-scale variability of the atmospheric state with the intent of deriving model forcing data sets. Over the course of the 46-day MC3E campaign, a total of 1362 radiosondes were launched from the enhanced sonde network. This manuscript provides details on the instrumentation used as part of the sounding array, the data processing activities including quality checks and humidity bias corrections and an analysis of the impacts of bias correction and algorithm assumptions on the determination of convective levels and indices. It is found that corrections for known radiosonde humidity biases and assumptions regarding the characteristics of the surface convective parcel result in significant differences in the derived values of convective levels and indices in many soundings. In addition, the impact of including the humidity corrections and quality controls on the thermodynamic profiles that are used in the derivation of a large-scale modelmore » forcing data set are investigated. The results show a significant impact on the derived large-scale vertical velocity field illustrating the importance of addressing these humidity biases.« less

Authors:
; ; ; ; ; ; ; ;
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science - Office of Biological and Environmental Research; USDOE Office of Science - Office of Biological and Environmental Research - Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program
OSTI Identifier:
1391795
DOE Contract Number:  
AC02-06CH11357
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Journal Name:
Atmospheric Measurement Techniques (Online)
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 8; Journal Issue: 1; Journal ID: ISSN 1867-8548
Publisher:
European Geosciences Union
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English

Citation Formats

Jensen, M. P., Toto, T., Troyan, D., Ciesielski, P. E., Holdridge, D., Kyrouac, J., Schatz, J., Zhang, Y., and Xie, S. The Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment (MC3E) sounding network: operations, processing and analysis. United States: N. p., 2015. Web. doi:10.5194/amt-8-421-2015.
Jensen, M. P., Toto, T., Troyan, D., Ciesielski, P. E., Holdridge, D., Kyrouac, J., Schatz, J., Zhang, Y., & Xie, S. The Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment (MC3E) sounding network: operations, processing and analysis. United States. doi:10.5194/amt-8-421-2015.
Jensen, M. P., Toto, T., Troyan, D., Ciesielski, P. E., Holdridge, D., Kyrouac, J., Schatz, J., Zhang, Y., and Xie, S. Thu . "The Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment (MC3E) sounding network: operations, processing and analysis". United States. doi:10.5194/amt-8-421-2015.
@article{osti_1391795,
title = {The Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment (MC3E) sounding network: operations, processing and analysis},
author = {Jensen, M. P. and Toto, T. and Troyan, D. and Ciesielski, P. E. and Holdridge, D. and Kyrouac, J. and Schatz, J. and Zhang, Y. and Xie, S.},
abstractNote = {The Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment (MC3E) took place during the spring of 2011 centered in north-central Oklahoma, USA. The main goal of this field campaign was to capture the dynamical and microphysical characteristics of precipitating convective systems in the US Central Plains. A major component of the campaign was a six-site radiosonde array designed to capture the large-scale variability of the atmospheric state with the intent of deriving model forcing data sets. Over the course of the 46-day MC3E campaign, a total of 1362 radiosondes were launched from the enhanced sonde network. This manuscript provides details on the instrumentation used as part of the sounding array, the data processing activities including quality checks and humidity bias corrections and an analysis of the impacts of bias correction and algorithm assumptions on the determination of convective levels and indices. It is found that corrections for known radiosonde humidity biases and assumptions regarding the characteristics of the surface convective parcel result in significant differences in the derived values of convective levels and indices in many soundings. In addition, the impact of including the humidity corrections and quality controls on the thermodynamic profiles that are used in the derivation of a large-scale model forcing data set are investigated. The results show a significant impact on the derived large-scale vertical velocity field illustrating the importance of addressing these humidity biases.},
doi = {10.5194/amt-8-421-2015},
journal = {Atmospheric Measurement Techniques (Online)},
issn = {1867-8548},
number = 1,
volume = 8,
place = {United States},
year = {2015},
month = {1}
}

Works referenced in this record:

The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program
journal, January 2003

  • Ackerman, Thomas P.; Stokes, Gerald M.
  • Physics Today, Vol. 56, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.1554135

GPS meteorology: Remote sensing of atmospheric water vapor using the global positioning system
journal, January 1992

  • Bevis, Michael; Businger, Steven; Herring, Thomas A.
  • Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 97, Issue D14
  • DOI: 10.1029/92JD01517

The Computation of Equivalent Potential Temperature
journal, July 1980


The Atmospheric radiation measurement (ARM) program network of microwave radiometers: instrumentation, data, and retrievals
journal, January 2013

  • Cadeddu, M. P.; Liljegren, J. C.; Turner, D. D.
  • Atmospheric Measurement Techniques, Vol. 6, Issue 9
  • DOI: 10.5194/amt-6-2359-2013

Improved Daytime Column-Integrated Precipitable Water Vapor from Vaisala Radiosonde Humidity Sensors
journal, June 2008

  • Cady-Pereira, K. E.; Shephard, M. W.; Turner, D. D.
  • Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology, Vol. 25, Issue 6
  • DOI: 10.1175/2007JTECHA1027.1

Quality-Controlled Upper-Air Sounding Dataset for DYNAMO/CINDY/AMIE: Development and Corrections
journal, April 2014

  • Ciesielski, Paul E.; Yu, Hungjui; Johnson, Richard H.
  • Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology, Vol. 31, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.1175/JTECH-D-13-00165.1

Comparison of Stratus Cloud Properties Deduced from Surface, GOES, and Aircraft Data during the March 2000 ARM Cloud IOP
journal, December 2002


The systematic behavior of water vapor estimates using four years of GPS observations
journal, January 2000

  • Emardson, T. R.; Johansson, J.; Elgered, G.
  • IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, Vol. 38, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1109/36.823927

A comparison of single column model simulations of summertime midlatitude continental convection
journal, January 2000

  • Ghan, Steven; Randall, David; Xu, Kuan-Man
  • Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, Vol. 105, Issue D2
  • DOI: 10.1029/1999JD900971

The Global Precipitation Measurement Mission
journal, May 2014

  • Hou, Arthur Y.; Kakar, Ramesh K.; Neeck, Steven
  • Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, Vol. 95, Issue 5
  • DOI: 10.1175/BAMS-D-13-00164.1

Structure and Properties of Madden–Julian Oscillations Deduced from DYNAMO Sounding Arrays
journal, October 2013

  • Johnson, Richard H.; Ciesielski, Paul E.
  • Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, Vol. 70, Issue 10
  • DOI: 10.1175/JAS-D-13-065.1

Scanning ARM Cloud Radars. Part II: Data Quality Control and Processing
journal, March 2014

  • Kollias, Pavlos; Jo, Leng; Borque, Paloma
  • Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology, Vol. 31, Issue 3, p. 583-598
  • DOI: 10.1175/JTECH-D-13-00045.1

The Arm Climate Research Facility: A Review of Structure and Capabilities
journal, March 2013

  • Mather, James H.; Voyles, Jimmy W.
  • Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, Vol. 94, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1175/BAMS-D-11-00218.1

Development and Validation of a Time-Lag Correction for Vaisala Radiosonde Humidity Measurements
journal, September 2004


Accuracy assessment and correction of Vaisala RS92 radiosonde water vapor measurements
journal, January 2009

  • Miloshevich, Larry M.; Vömel, Holger; Whiteman, David N.
  • Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 114, Issue D11
  • DOI: 10.1029/2008JD011565

The dynamics and simulation of tropical cumulonimbus and squall lines: CUMULONIMBUS AND SQUALL LINES
journal, April 1976

  • Moncrieff, M. W.; Miller, M. J.
  • Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society, Vol. 102, Issue 432
  • DOI: 10.1002/qj.49710243208

The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program: Programmatic Background and Design of the Cloud and Radiation Test Bed
journal, July 1994


Retrieving Liquid Wat0er Path and Precipitable Water Vapor From the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Microwave Radiometers
journal, November 2007

  • Turner, David D.; Clough, Shepard A.; Liljegren, James C.
  • IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, Vol. 45, Issue 11
  • DOI: 10.1109/TGRS.2007.903703

SuomiNet: A Real–Time National GPS Network for Atmospheric Research and Education
journal, April 2000


Observed Large-Scale Structures and Diabatic Heating and Drying Profiles during TWP-ICE
journal, January 2010

  • Xie, Shaocheng; Hume, Timothy; Jakob, Christian
  • Journal of Climate, Vol. 23, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1175/2009JCLI3071.1

Interactions between cumulus convection and its environment as revealed by the MC3E sounding array: Convection with its environment
journal, October 2014

  • Xie, Shaocheng; Zhang, Yunyan; Giangrande, Scott E.
  • Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, Vol. 119, Issue 20
  • DOI: 10.1002/2014JD022011

Determination of Bulk Properties of Tropical Cloud Clusters from Large-Scale Heat and Moisture Budgets
journal, May 1973


Evaluation of Humidity Correction Methods for Vaisala RS92 Tropical Sounding Data
journal, March 2015

  • Yu, Hungjui; Ciesielski, Paul E.; Wang, Junhong
  • Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology, Vol. 32, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1175/JTECH-D-14-00166.1

Objective Analysis of ARM IOP Data: Method and Sensitivity
journal, February 2001