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Title: A review of the remote sensing of lower tropospheric thermodynamic profiles and its indispensable role for the understanding and the simulation of water and energy cycles: REMOTE SENSING OF THERMODYNAMIC PROFILES

Abstract

A review of remote sensing technology for lower tropospheric thermodynamic (TD) profiling is presented with focus on high accuracy and high temporal-vertical resolution. The contributions of these instruments to the understanding of the Earth system are assessed with respect to radiative transfer, land surface-atmosphere feedback, convection initiation, and data assimilation. We demonstrate that for progress in weather and climate research, TD profilers are essential. These observational systems must resolve gradients of humidity and temperature in the stable or unstable atmospheric surface layer close to the ground, in the mixed layer, in the interfacial layer—usually characterized by an inversion—and the lower troposphere. A thorough analysis of the current observing systems is performed revealing significant gaps that must be addressed to fulfill existing needs. We analyze whether current and future passive and active remote sensing systems can close these gaps. A methodological analysis and demonstration of measurement capabilities with respect to bias and precision is executed both for passive and active remote sensing including passive infrared and microwave spectroscopy, the global navigation satellite system, as well as water vapor and temperature Raman lidar and water vapor differential absorption lidar. Whereas passive remote sensing systems are already mature with respect to operational applications,more » active remote sensing systems require further engineering to become operational in networks. However, active remote sensing systems provide a smaller bias as well as higher temporal and vertical resolutions. For a suitable mesoscale network design, TD profiler system developments should be intensified and dedicated observing system simulation experiments should be performed.« less

Authors:
ORCiD logo [1];  [2];  [3];  [1];  [4];  [5];  [6];  [7];  [8]
  1. Institute of Physics and Meteorology, University of Hohenheim, Stuttgart Germany
  2. Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences, University of Colorado, Boulder Colorado USA
  3. National Severe Storms Laboratory, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Norman Oklahoma USA
  4. Environmental Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne Illinois USA
  5. Scuola di Ingegneria, Università degli Studi della Basilicata, Potenza Italy
  6. European Organisation for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites, Darmstadt Germany
  7. Laboratoire de Météorologie Physique, Observatoire de Physique du Globe de Clermont-Ferrand, Aubiere France
  8. German Research Center for Geosciences, Potsdam Germany
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science - Office of Biological and Environmental Research
OSTI Identifier:
1391667
DOE Contract Number:  
AC02-06CH11357
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Journal Name:
Reviews of Geophysics (1985)
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 53; Journal Issue: 3; Journal ID: ISSN 8755-1209
Publisher:
American Geophysical Union (AGU)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
58 GEOSCIENCES; IR and MW remote sensing; Remote sensing; atmospheric boundary layer; data assimilation; energy and water cycle; lidar

Citation Formats

Wulfmeyer, Volker, Hardesty, R. Michael, Turner, David D., Behrendt, Andreas, Cadeddu, Maria P., Di Girolamo, Paolo, Schlüssel, Peter, Van Baelen, Joël, and Zus, Florian. A review of the remote sensing of lower tropospheric thermodynamic profiles and its indispensable role for the understanding and the simulation of water and energy cycles: REMOTE SENSING OF THERMODYNAMIC PROFILES. United States: N. p., 2015. Web. doi:10.1002/2014RG000476.
Wulfmeyer, Volker, Hardesty, R. Michael, Turner, David D., Behrendt, Andreas, Cadeddu, Maria P., Di Girolamo, Paolo, Schlüssel, Peter, Van Baelen, Joël, & Zus, Florian. A review of the remote sensing of lower tropospheric thermodynamic profiles and its indispensable role for the understanding and the simulation of water and energy cycles: REMOTE SENSING OF THERMODYNAMIC PROFILES. United States. doi:10.1002/2014RG000476.
Wulfmeyer, Volker, Hardesty, R. Michael, Turner, David D., Behrendt, Andreas, Cadeddu, Maria P., Di Girolamo, Paolo, Schlüssel, Peter, Van Baelen, Joël, and Zus, Florian. Thu . "A review of the remote sensing of lower tropospheric thermodynamic profiles and its indispensable role for the understanding and the simulation of water and energy cycles: REMOTE SENSING OF THERMODYNAMIC PROFILES". United States. doi:10.1002/2014RG000476.
@article{osti_1391667,
title = {A review of the remote sensing of lower tropospheric thermodynamic profiles and its indispensable role for the understanding and the simulation of water and energy cycles: REMOTE SENSING OF THERMODYNAMIC PROFILES},
author = {Wulfmeyer, Volker and Hardesty, R. Michael and Turner, David D. and Behrendt, Andreas and Cadeddu, Maria P. and Di Girolamo, Paolo and Schlüssel, Peter and Van Baelen, Joël and Zus, Florian},
abstractNote = {A review of remote sensing technology for lower tropospheric thermodynamic (TD) profiling is presented with focus on high accuracy and high temporal-vertical resolution. The contributions of these instruments to the understanding of the Earth system are assessed with respect to radiative transfer, land surface-atmosphere feedback, convection initiation, and data assimilation. We demonstrate that for progress in weather and climate research, TD profilers are essential. These observational systems must resolve gradients of humidity and temperature in the stable or unstable atmospheric surface layer close to the ground, in the mixed layer, in the interfacial layer—usually characterized by an inversion—and the lower troposphere. A thorough analysis of the current observing systems is performed revealing significant gaps that must be addressed to fulfill existing needs. We analyze whether current and future passive and active remote sensing systems can close these gaps. A methodological analysis and demonstration of measurement capabilities with respect to bias and precision is executed both for passive and active remote sensing including passive infrared and microwave spectroscopy, the global navigation satellite system, as well as water vapor and temperature Raman lidar and water vapor differential absorption lidar. Whereas passive remote sensing systems are already mature with respect to operational applications, active remote sensing systems require further engineering to become operational in networks. However, active remote sensing systems provide a smaller bias as well as higher temporal and vertical resolutions. For a suitable mesoscale network design, TD profiler system developments should be intensified and dedicated observing system simulation experiments should be performed.},
doi = {10.1002/2014RG000476},
journal = {Reviews of Geophysics (1985)},
issn = {8755-1209},
number = 3,
volume = 53,
place = {United States},
year = {2015},
month = {8}
}

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