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Title: Four decades of open science

Publication Date:
Research Org.:
SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
OSTI Identifier:
DOE Contract Number:
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Nature Physics; Journal Volume: 13; Journal Issue: 6
Country of Publication:
United States

Citation Formats

Hecker, Bernard L. Four decades of open science. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.1038/nphys4160.
Hecker, Bernard L. Four decades of open science. United States. doi:10.1038/nphys4160.
Hecker, Bernard L. Fri . "Four decades of open science". United States. doi:10.1038/nphys4160.
title = {Four decades of open science},
author = {Hecker, Bernard L.},
abstractNote = {},
doi = {10.1038/nphys4160},
journal = {Nature Physics},
number = 6,
volume = 13,
place = {United States},
year = {Fri Jun 02 00:00:00 EDT 2017},
month = {Fri Jun 02 00:00:00 EDT 2017}
  • The longer-term evolution of global refining is shown graphically. Total capacity to process crude oil declined just after the turn of the decade. By no means was this experienced equally around the world, however, as this issue details. Essentially, the developed free market nations cut back capacity since 1980, but developing countries and centrally planned economy countries did not. A continued rebalancing of capacities according to both economic growth trends and nature-given crude oil resource occurrences is pre-determined. What cannot be known are the vital internal market specifics that will decide financial investments in expanding or upgrading capacities. This issuemore » also contains the following: (1) ED refining netback data from the US Gulf and West Coasts, Rotterdam, and Singapore for early August 1987; and (2) ED fuel price/tax series for countries of the Western Hemisphere, August 1987 edition. Note: MOSOM, Lundberg Survey's Executive Summary report, provides monthly extraction data from seven primary US data files - cost: $120 per year; write to the Survey, P.O. Box 3996, North Hollywood, CA 91609-0996 for a free sample. 9 figures, 5 tables.« less
  • The characteristics of the onset of the Pacific basin-wide warming have experienced notable changes since the late 1970s. The changes are caused by a concurrent change in the background state on which El Nino evolves. For the most significant warm episodes before the late 1970s (1957, 1965, and 1972), the atmospheric anomalies in the onset phase (November to December of the year preceding the El Nino) were characterized by a giant anomalous cyclone over east Australia whose eastward movement brought anomalous westerlies into the western equatorial Pacific, causing development of the basin-wide warming. Meanwhile, the trades in the southeastern Pacificmore » relaxed back to their weakest stage, resulting in a South American coastal warming, which led the central Pacific warming about three seasons. Conversely, in the warm episodes after the late 1970s (1982, 1986-87, and 1991), the onset phase was characterized by an anomalous cyclone over the Philippine Sea whose intensification established anomalous westerlies in the western equatorial Pacific. Concurrently, the trades were enhanced in the southeastern Pacific, so that the coastal warming off Ecuado occurred after the central Pacific warming. It is found that the atmospheric anomalies occurring in the onset phase are controlled by background SSTs that exhibit a significant secular variation. In the late 1970s, the tropical Pacific between 20{degrees}S and 20{degrees}N experienced an abrupt interdecadal warming, concurrent with a cooling in the extratropical North Pacific and South Pacific and a deepening of the Aleutian Low. The interdecadal change of the background state affected El Nino onset by altering the formation of the onset cyclone and equatorial westerly anomalies and through changing the trades in the southeast Pacific, which determine whether a South American coastal warming leads or follows the warming at the central equatorial Pacific. 49 refs., 13 figs.« less
  • The interdecadal variation of precipitation along the US Pacific coast over the past 45 winters (1950-94) was examined with station observations. An interdecadal decreasing (minor increasing) trend appeared north (south) of 36{degrees}N. This interdecadal trend in precipitation is related to the development of an anomalous dipole structure (a major anamalous high centered over the Pacific coast at British Columbia and a minor anamalous low centered over northern Baja California) throughout the past several decades. The correlation coefficient patterns between the Pacific coast precipitation and upper-air geopotential heights, and the difference charts of upper-air geopotential heights between the first (1950-59) andmore » last (1985-94) 10 winters revealed that the interdecadal variation of the western U.S. circulation is a part of that in the Northern Hemisphere wintertime circulation. In turn, the interdecadal variation of the Pacific coast precipitation is a consequence of the interdecadal variation of the Northern Hemisphere wintertime circulation. 18 refs., 6 figs.« less
  • We use data from a unique 40-year record of 150 urban and rural stations in the ''Black Smoke and SO2 Network'' in Great Britain to infer information about sources of atmospheric black carbon (BC). The data show a rapid decline of ambient atmospheric BC between 1962 and the early 1990s that exceeds the decline in official estimates of BC emissions based only on amount of fuel use and mostly fixed emission factors. This provides empirical confirmation of the existence and large impact of a time-dependent ''technology factor'' that must multiply the rate of fossil fuel use. Current ambient BC amountsmore » in Great Britain comparable to those in western and central Europe, with diesel engines being the principal present source. From comparison of BC and SO2 data we infer that current BC emission inventories understate true emissions in the U.K. by about a factor of two. The results imply that there is the potential for improved technology to achieve large reduction of global ambient BC. There is a need for comparable monitoring of BC in other countries.« less