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Title: Observation of Reverse Saturable Absorption of an X-ray Laser

Abstract

A nonlinear absorber in which the excited state absorption is larger than the ground state can undergo a process called reverse saturable absorption. It is a well-known phenomenon in laser physics in the optical regime, but is more difficult to generate in the x-ray regime, where fast nonradiative core electron transitions typically dominate the population kinetics during light matter interactions. Here, we report the first observation of decreasing x-ray transmission in a solid target pumped by intense x-ray free electron laser pulses. The measurement has been made below the K-absorption edge of aluminum, and the x-ray intensity ranges are 10 16 –10 17 W=cm 2. It has been confirmed by collisional radiative population kinetic calculations, underscoring the fast spectral modulation of the x-ray pulses and charge states relevant to the absorption and transmission of x-ray photons. The processes shown through detailed simulations are consistent with reverse saturable absorption, which would be the first observation of this phenomena in the x-ray regime. These light matter interactions provide a unique opportunity to investigate optical transport properties in the extreme state of matters, as well as affording the potential to regulate ultrafast x-ray freeelectron laser pulses.

Authors:
 [1];  [1];  [1];  [2];  [3];  [3];  [4];  [4];  [5];  [6];  [4];  [6];  [4];  [6];  [7];  [1];  [5];  [8];  [6];  [5] more »;  [5];  [9];  [6] « less
  1. Inst. of Basic Science, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Gwangju Inst. of Science and Technology (Korea, Republic of)
  2. Intl Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Vienna (Austria)
  3. Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)
  4. Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic (ASCR), Prague (Czech Republic). Inst. of Physics
  5. Univ. of Oxford (United Kingdom)
  6. SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)
  7. Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)
  8. Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)
  9. European X-ray Free-Electron Laser (XFEL), Schenefeld (Germany)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Basic Energy Sciences (BES) (SC-22)
OSTI Identifier:
1390622
Grant/Contract Number:
IBS-R012-D1; NRF-2016R1A2B4009631; NRF-2015R1A5A1009962; EP/H035877/1; EP/L000849/1; AC02-76SF00515
Resource Type:
Journal Article: Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Physical Review Letters
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 119; Journal Issue: 7; Journal ID: ISSN 0031-9007
Publisher:
American Physical Society (APS)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
71 CLASSICAL AND QUANTUM MECHANICS, GENERAL PHYSICS

Citation Formats

Cho, B. I., Cho, M. S., Kim, M., Chung, H. -K., Barbrel, B., Engelhorn, K., Burian, T., Chalupský, J., Ciricosta, O., Dakovski, G. L., Hájková, V., Holmes, M., Juha, L., Krzywinski, J., Lee, R. W., Nam, Chang Hee, Rackstraw, D. S., Toleikis, S., Turner, J. J., Vinko, S. M., Wark, J. S., Zastrau, U., and Heimann, P. A.. Observation of Reverse Saturable Absorption of an X-ray Laser. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.119.075002.
Cho, B. I., Cho, M. S., Kim, M., Chung, H. -K., Barbrel, B., Engelhorn, K., Burian, T., Chalupský, J., Ciricosta, O., Dakovski, G. L., Hájková, V., Holmes, M., Juha, L., Krzywinski, J., Lee, R. W., Nam, Chang Hee, Rackstraw, D. S., Toleikis, S., Turner, J. J., Vinko, S. M., Wark, J. S., Zastrau, U., & Heimann, P. A.. Observation of Reverse Saturable Absorption of an X-ray Laser. United States. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.119.075002.
Cho, B. I., Cho, M. S., Kim, M., Chung, H. -K., Barbrel, B., Engelhorn, K., Burian, T., Chalupský, J., Ciricosta, O., Dakovski, G. L., Hájková, V., Holmes, M., Juha, L., Krzywinski, J., Lee, R. W., Nam, Chang Hee, Rackstraw, D. S., Toleikis, S., Turner, J. J., Vinko, S. M., Wark, J. S., Zastrau, U., and Heimann, P. A.. 2017. "Observation of Reverse Saturable Absorption of an X-ray Laser". United States. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.119.075002.
@article{osti_1390622,
title = {Observation of Reverse Saturable Absorption of an X-ray Laser},
author = {Cho, B. I. and Cho, M. S. and Kim, M. and Chung, H. -K. and Barbrel, B. and Engelhorn, K. and Burian, T. and Chalupský, J. and Ciricosta, O. and Dakovski, G. L. and Hájková, V. and Holmes, M. and Juha, L. and Krzywinski, J. and Lee, R. W. and Nam, Chang Hee and Rackstraw, D. S. and Toleikis, S. and Turner, J. J. and Vinko, S. M. and Wark, J. S. and Zastrau, U. and Heimann, P. A.},
abstractNote = {A nonlinear absorber in which the excited state absorption is larger than the ground state can undergo a process called reverse saturable absorption. It is a well-known phenomenon in laser physics in the optical regime, but is more difficult to generate in the x-ray regime, where fast nonradiative core electron transitions typically dominate the population kinetics during light matter interactions. Here, we report the first observation of decreasing x-ray transmission in a solid target pumped by intense x-ray free electron laser pulses. The measurement has been made below the K-absorption edge of aluminum, and the x-ray intensity ranges are 1016 –1017 W=cm2. It has been confirmed by collisional radiative population kinetic calculations, underscoring the fast spectral modulation of the x-ray pulses and charge states relevant to the absorption and transmission of x-ray photons. The processes shown through detailed simulations are consistent with reverse saturable absorption, which would be the first observation of this phenomena in the x-ray regime. These light matter interactions provide a unique opportunity to investigate optical transport properties in the extreme state of matters, as well as affording the potential to regulate ultrafast x-ray freeelectron laser pulses.},
doi = {10.1103/PhysRevLett.119.075002},
journal = {Physical Review Letters},
number = 7,
volume = 119,
place = {United States},
year = 2017,
month = 8
}

Journal Article:
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  • Reverse saturable absorption of C{sub 60} dissolved in different solvents has been investigated under irradiation with 7-ns or 25-ps laser pulses at 532 nm. The results show that the solutions act as efficient power-limiting media under laser fluence of as high as 3 J/cm{sup 2} for both picosecond and nanosecond laser pulses. The reversely saturated (clamped) level depends on the type of solvent used. It was found that the saturated level is the lowest with carbon disulfide in comparison with several other solvents. A phenomenological model is used to describe optical limiting phenomena, including the darkening effect of C{sub 60}more » and the possible contribution of the solvent at high laser intensity. {copyright} {ital 1996 Optical Society of America.}« less
  • A detailed theoretical analysis of ultrafast transition from saturable absorption (SA) to reverse saturable absorption (RSA) has been presented in graphene-oxide thin films with femtosecond laser pulses at 800 nm. Increase in pulse intensity leads to switching from SA to RSA with increased contrast due to two-photon absorption induced excited-state absorption. Theoretical results are in good agreement with reported experimental results. Interestingly, it is also shown that increase in concentration results in RSA to SA transition. The switching has been optimized to design parallel all-optical femtosecond NOT, AND, OR, XOR, and the universal NAND and NOR logic gates.
  • We report a new family of organometallic compounds that exhibit optical limiting through reverse saturable absorption. The optical limiting properties of the metal cluster compounds HFeCo{sub 3}(CO){sub 12}, (NEt{sub 4}){sup +}FeCo{sub 3}(CO){sup {minus}}{sub 12} , HFeCo{sub 3}(CO){sub 10}(PMe{sub 3}){sub 2}, and HFeCo{sub 3}(CO){sub 10}(P(C{sub 6}H{sub 5}){sub 3}){sub 2} were measured at 532 nm using 8-nsec pulses. Pulse narrowing from 8 to 4 nsec was observed. The data indicate that the optical-limiting properties are essentially independent of the type of counter ion substituted in the compound but dependent on the ligand-type substitution.
  • We describe an ultrashort-pulse laser that, under specific operating conditions, balances the mechanisms of conventional passive mode locking and solitonlike pulse shaping in a single resonator to generate optical pulses that are to our knowledge the shortest yet emitted directly from a laser, 27 fsec.