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Title: DES15E2mlf: A Spectroscopically Confirmed Superluminous Supernova that Exploded 3.5 Gyr After the Big Bang

Abstract

We present the Dark Energy Survey (DES) discovery of DES15E2mlf, the most distant superluminous supernova (SLSN) spectroscopically con rmed to date. The light curves and Gemini spectroscopy of DES15E2mlf indicate that it is a Type I superluminous supernova (SLSN-I) at z = 1:861 (a lookback time of 10 Gyr) and peaking at MAB = -22:3 0:1 mag. Given the high redshift, our data probe the rest-frame ultraviolet (1400{3500 A) properties of the SN, nding velocity of the Ciii feature changes by 5600kms -1 over 14 days around maximum light. We nd the host galaxy of DES15E2mlf has a stellar mass of 3:5+3:6 -2:4 109 M , which is more massive than the typical SLSN-I host galaxy.

Authors:
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Publication Date:
Research Org.:
SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), High Energy Physics (HEP) (SC-25); USDOE Office of Science (SC), Advanced Scientific Computing Research (ASCR) (SC-21)
OSTI Identifier:
1390594
Report Number(s):
arXiv:1707.06649; FERMILAB-PUB-16-614-AE
Journal ID: ISSN 0035-8711; TRN: US1702484
Grant/Contract Number:
AC02-76SF00515; AC02-07CH11359; AC05-00OR22725
Resource Type:
Journal Article: Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 470; Journal Issue: 4; Journal ID: ISSN 0035-8711
Publisher:
Royal Astronomical Society
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
79 ASTRONOMY AND ASTROPHYSICS; supernovae: general; supernovae: individual: DES15E2mlf

Citation Formats

Pan, Y. -C., Foley, R. J., Smith, M., Galbany, L., D’Andrea, C. B., Gonzalez-Gaitan, S., Jarvis, M. J., Kessler, R., Kovacs, E., Lidman, C., Nichol, R. C., Papadopoulos, A., Sako, M., Sullivan, M., Abbott, T. M. C., Abdalla, F. B., Annis, J., Bechtol, K., Benoit-Lévy, A., Brooks, D., Buckley-Geer, E., Burke, D. L., Rosell, A. Carnero, Carrasco Kind, M., Carretero, J., Castander, F. J., Cunha, C. E., da Costa, L. N., Desai, S., Diehl, H. T., Doel, P., Eifler, T. F., Finley, D. A., Flaugher, B., Frieman, J., García-Bellido, J., Goldstein, D. A., Gruen, D., Gruendl, R. A., Gschwend, J., Gutierrez, G., James, D. J., Kim, A. G., Krause, E., Kuehn, K., Kuropatkin, N., Lahav, O., Lima, M., Maia, M. A. G., March, M., Marshall, J. L., Martini, P., Miquel, R., Nugent, P., Plazas, A. A., Romer, A. K., Sanchez, E., Scarpine, V., Schubnell, M., Sevilla-Noarbe, I., Smith, R. C., Sobreira, F., Suchyta, E., Swanson, M. E. C., Thomas, R. C., and Walker, A. R. DES15E2mlf: A Spectroscopically Confirmed Superluminous Supernova that Exploded 3.5 Gyr After the Big Bang. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.1093/mnras/stx1467.
Pan, Y. -C., Foley, R. J., Smith, M., Galbany, L., D’Andrea, C. B., Gonzalez-Gaitan, S., Jarvis, M. J., Kessler, R., Kovacs, E., Lidman, C., Nichol, R. C., Papadopoulos, A., Sako, M., Sullivan, M., Abbott, T. M. C., Abdalla, F. B., Annis, J., Bechtol, K., Benoit-Lévy, A., Brooks, D., Buckley-Geer, E., Burke, D. L., Rosell, A. Carnero, Carrasco Kind, M., Carretero, J., Castander, F. J., Cunha, C. E., da Costa, L. N., Desai, S., Diehl, H. T., Doel, P., Eifler, T. F., Finley, D. A., Flaugher, B., Frieman, J., García-Bellido, J., Goldstein, D. A., Gruen, D., Gruendl, R. A., Gschwend, J., Gutierrez, G., James, D. J., Kim, A. G., Krause, E., Kuehn, K., Kuropatkin, N., Lahav, O., Lima, M., Maia, M. A. G., March, M., Marshall, J. L., Martini, P., Miquel, R., Nugent, P., Plazas, A. A., Romer, A. K., Sanchez, E., Scarpine, V., Schubnell, M., Sevilla-Noarbe, I., Smith, R. C., Sobreira, F., Suchyta, E., Swanson, M. E. C., Thomas, R. C., & Walker, A. R. DES15E2mlf: A Spectroscopically Confirmed Superluminous Supernova that Exploded 3.5 Gyr After the Big Bang. United States. doi:10.1093/mnras/stx1467.
Pan, Y. -C., Foley, R. J., Smith, M., Galbany, L., D’Andrea, C. B., Gonzalez-Gaitan, S., Jarvis, M. J., Kessler, R., Kovacs, E., Lidman, C., Nichol, R. C., Papadopoulos, A., Sako, M., Sullivan, M., Abbott, T. M. C., Abdalla, F. B., Annis, J., Bechtol, K., Benoit-Lévy, A., Brooks, D., Buckley-Geer, E., Burke, D. L., Rosell, A. Carnero, Carrasco Kind, M., Carretero, J., Castander, F. J., Cunha, C. E., da Costa, L. N., Desai, S., Diehl, H. T., Doel, P., Eifler, T. F., Finley, D. A., Flaugher, B., Frieman, J., García-Bellido, J., Goldstein, D. A., Gruen, D., Gruendl, R. A., Gschwend, J., Gutierrez, G., James, D. J., Kim, A. G., Krause, E., Kuehn, K., Kuropatkin, N., Lahav, O., Lima, M., Maia, M. A. G., March, M., Marshall, J. L., Martini, P., Miquel, R., Nugent, P., Plazas, A. A., Romer, A. K., Sanchez, E., Scarpine, V., Schubnell, M., Sevilla-Noarbe, I., Smith, R. C., Sobreira, F., Suchyta, E., Swanson, M. E. C., Thomas, R. C., and Walker, A. R. 2017. "DES15E2mlf: A Spectroscopically Confirmed Superluminous Supernova that Exploded 3.5 Gyr After the Big Bang". United States. doi:10.1093/mnras/stx1467.
@article{osti_1390594,
title = {DES15E2mlf: A Spectroscopically Confirmed Superluminous Supernova that Exploded 3.5 Gyr After the Big Bang},
author = {Pan, Y. -C. and Foley, R. J. and Smith, M. and Galbany, L. and D’Andrea, C. B. and Gonzalez-Gaitan, S. and Jarvis, M. J. and Kessler, R. and Kovacs, E. and Lidman, C. and Nichol, R. C. and Papadopoulos, A. and Sako, M. and Sullivan, M. and Abbott, T. M. C. and Abdalla, F. B. and Annis, J. and Bechtol, K. and Benoit-Lévy, A. and Brooks, D. and Buckley-Geer, E. and Burke, D. L. and Rosell, A. Carnero and Carrasco Kind, M. and Carretero, J. and Castander, F. J. and Cunha, C. E. and da Costa, L. N. and Desai, S. and Diehl, H. T. and Doel, P. and Eifler, T. F. and Finley, D. A. and Flaugher, B. and Frieman, J. and García-Bellido, J. and Goldstein, D. A. and Gruen, D. and Gruendl, R. A. and Gschwend, J. and Gutierrez, G. and James, D. J. and Kim, A. G. and Krause, E. and Kuehn, K. and Kuropatkin, N. and Lahav, O. and Lima, M. and Maia, M. A. G. and March, M. and Marshall, J. L. and Martini, P. and Miquel, R. and Nugent, P. and Plazas, A. A. and Romer, A. K. and Sanchez, E. and Scarpine, V. and Schubnell, M. and Sevilla-Noarbe, I. and Smith, R. C. and Sobreira, F. and Suchyta, E. and Swanson, M. E. C. and Thomas, R. C. and Walker, A. R.},
abstractNote = {We present the Dark Energy Survey (DES) discovery of DES15E2mlf, the most distant superluminous supernova (SLSN) spectroscopically con rmed to date. The light curves and Gemini spectroscopy of DES15E2mlf indicate that it is a Type I superluminous supernova (SLSN-I) at z = 1:861 (a lookback time of 10 Gyr) and peaking at MAB = -22:3 0:1 mag. Given the high redshift, our data probe the rest-frame ultraviolet (1400{3500 A) properties of the SN, nding velocity of the Ciii feature changes by 5600kms-1 over 14 days around maximum light. We nd the host galaxy of DES15E2mlf has a stellar mass of 3:5+3:6 -2:4 109 M , which is more massive than the typical SLSN-I host galaxy.},
doi = {10.1093/mnras/stx1467},
journal = {Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society},
number = 4,
volume = 470,
place = {United States},
year = 2017,
month = 6
}

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  • We present the Dark Energy Survey (DES) discovery of DES15E2mlf, the most distant superluminous supernova (SLSN) spectroscopically confirmed to date. The light curves and Gemini spectroscopy of DES15E2mlf indicate that it is a Type I superluminous supernova (SLSN-I) at z = 1.861 (a lookback time of ~10 Gyr) and peaking at M_AB = -22.3 +/- 0.1 mag. Given the high redshift, our data probe the rest-frame ultraviolet (1400-3500 A) properties of the SN, finding velocity of the C III feature changes by ~5600 km/s over 14 days around maximum light. We find the host galaxy of DES15E2mlf has a stellarmore » mass of 3.5^+3.6_-2.4 x 10^9 M_sun, which is more massive than the typical SLSN-I host galaxy.« less
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  • We present the Dark Energy Survey (DES) discovery of DES15E2mlf, the most distant superluminous supernova (SLSN) spectroscopically confirmed to date. The light curves and Gemini spectroscopy of DES15E2mlf indicate that it is a Type I superluminous supernova (SLSN-I) at z = 1.861 (a lookback time of ~10 Gyr) and peaking at M_AB = -22.3 +/- 0.1 mag. Given the high redshift, our data probe the rest-frame ultraviolet (1400-3500 A) properties of the SN, finding velocity of the C III feature changes by ~5600 km/s over 14 days around maximum light. We find the host galaxy of DES15E2mlf has a stellarmore » mass of 3.5^+3.6_-2.4 x 10^9 M_sun, which is more massive than the typical SLSN-I host galaxy.« less
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  • To trace how dust-obscured star formation varies with environment, we compare the fraction of 24 mum sources in a super galaxy group to the field and a rich galaxy cluster at z approx 0.35. We draw on multi-wavelength observations{sup 9}Based on observations made with (1) The ESO telescopes at Paranal Observatories under program IDs 072.A-0367, 076.B-0362, 078.B-0409; (2) the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope (GO-10499); STScI is operated by the association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc. under the NASA contract NAS 5-26555; (3) the Spitzer Space Telescope, which is operated by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technologymore » under a contract with NASA; support for this work was provided by NASA through an award issued by JPL/Caltech (GO-20683); (4) the Chandra X-ray Observatory Center, which is operated by the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory for and on behalf of the National Aeronautics Space Administration under contract NAS8-03060; and (5) the Magellan 6.5 m telescope operated by OCIW. that combine Hubble, Chandra, and Spitzer imaging with extensive optical spectroscopy (>1800 redshifts) to isolate galaxies in each environment and thus ensure a uniform analysis. We focus on the four galaxy groups (sigma{sub 1D} = 303-580 km s{sup -1}) in supergroup 1120-12 that will merge to form a galaxy cluster comparable in mass to Coma. We find that (1) the fraction of supergroup galaxies with SFR{sub IR} >= 3 M {sub sun} yr{sup -1} is 4 times higher than in the cluster (32% +- 5% versus 7% +- 2%); (2) the supergroup's infrared luminosity function confirms that it has a higher density of IR members compared to the cluster and includes bright IR sources (log(L {sub IR})[erg s{sup -1}] >45) not found in galaxy clusters at z approx< 0.35; and (3) there is a strong trend of decreasing 24 mum fraction with increasing galaxy density, i.e., an infrared-density relation, not observed in the cluster. These dramatic differences are surprising because the early-type fraction in the supergroup is already as high as in clusters, i.e., the timescales for morphological transformation cannot be strongly coupled to when the star formation is completely quenched. The supergroup has a significant fraction (approx17%) of luminous, low-mass (10.0 < log(M {sub *})[M {sub sun}] < 10.6), SFR{sub IR} >= 3 M {sub sun} yr{sup -1} members that are outside the group cores (R {sub proj} >= 0.5 Mpc); once their star formation is quenched, most will evolve into faint red galaxies. Our analysis indicates that the supergroup's 24 mum population also differs from that in the field: (1) despite the supergroup having twice the fraction of E/S0s as the field, the fraction of SFR{sub IR} >= 3 M {sub sun} yr{sup -1} galaxies is comparable in both environments, and (2) the supergroup's IR luminosity function has a higher L*{sub IR} than that previously measured for the field.« less