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Title: DES15E2mlf: A Spectroscopically Confirmed Superluminous Supernova that Exploded 3.5 Gyr After the Big Bang

Abstract

We present the Dark Energy Survey (DES) discovery of DES15E2mlf, the most distant superluminous supernova (SLSN) spectroscopically con rmed to date. The light curves and Gemini spectroscopy of DES15E2mlf indicate that it is a Type I superluminous supernova (SLSN-I) at z = 1:861 (a lookback time of 10 Gyr) and peaking at MAB = -22:3 0:1 mag. Given the high redshift, our data probe the rest-frame ultraviolet (1400{3500 A) properties of the SN, nding velocity of the Ciii feature changes by 5600kms -1 over 14 days around maximum light. We nd the host galaxy of DES15E2mlf has a stellar mass of 3:5+3:6 -2:4 109 M , which is more massive than the typical SLSN-I host galaxy.

Authors:
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Publication Date:
Research Org.:
SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), High Energy Physics (HEP) (SC-25)
Contributing Org.:
DES Collaboration
OSTI Identifier:
1390594
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1407119; OSTI ID: 1418323; OSTI ID: 1436164
Report Number(s):
arXiv:1707.06649; FERMILAB-PUB-16-614-AE
Journal ID: ISSN 0035-8711; TRN: US1702484
Grant/Contract Number:
AC02-76SF00515; AC02-07CH11359; AC02-05CH11231
Resource Type:
Journal Article: Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 470; Journal Issue: 4; Journal ID: ISSN 0035-8711
Publisher:
Royal Astronomical Society
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
79 ASTRONOMY AND ASTROPHYSICS; supernovae: general; supernovae: individual: DES15E2mlf

Citation Formats

Pan, Y. -C., Foley, R. J., Smith, M., Galbany, L., D’Andrea, C. B., Gonzalez-Gaitan, S., Jarvis, M. J., Kessler, R., Kovacs, E., Lidman, C., Nichol, R. C., Papadopoulos, A., Sako, M., Sullivan, M., Abbott, T. M. C., Abdalla, F. B., Annis, J., Bechtol, K., Benoit-Lévy, A., Brooks, D., Buckley-Geer, E., Burke, D. L., Rosell, A. Carnero, Carrasco Kind, M., Carretero, J., Castander, F. J., Cunha, C. E., da Costa, L. N., Desai, S., Diehl, H. T., Doel, P., Eifler, T. F., Finley, D. A., Flaugher, B., Frieman, J., García-Bellido, J., Goldstein, D. A., Gruen, D., Gruendl, R. A., Gschwend, J., Gutierrez, G., James, D. J., Kim, A. G., Krause, E., Kuehn, K., Kuropatkin, N., Lahav, O., Lima, M., Maia, M. A. G., March, M., Marshall, J. L., Martini, P., Miquel, R., Nugent, P., Plazas, A. A., Romer, A. K., Sanchez, E., Scarpine, V., Schubnell, M., Sevilla-Noarbe, I., Smith, R. C., Sobreira, F., Suchyta, E., Swanson, M. E. C., Thomas, R. C., and Walker, A. R. DES15E2mlf: A Spectroscopically Confirmed Superluminous Supernova that Exploded 3.5 Gyr After the Big Bang. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.1093/mnras/stx1467.
Pan, Y. -C., Foley, R. J., Smith, M., Galbany, L., D’Andrea, C. B., Gonzalez-Gaitan, S., Jarvis, M. J., Kessler, R., Kovacs, E., Lidman, C., Nichol, R. C., Papadopoulos, A., Sako, M., Sullivan, M., Abbott, T. M. C., Abdalla, F. B., Annis, J., Bechtol, K., Benoit-Lévy, A., Brooks, D., Buckley-Geer, E., Burke, D. L., Rosell, A. Carnero, Carrasco Kind, M., Carretero, J., Castander, F. J., Cunha, C. E., da Costa, L. N., Desai, S., Diehl, H. T., Doel, P., Eifler, T. F., Finley, D. A., Flaugher, B., Frieman, J., García-Bellido, J., Goldstein, D. A., Gruen, D., Gruendl, R. A., Gschwend, J., Gutierrez, G., James, D. J., Kim, A. G., Krause, E., Kuehn, K., Kuropatkin, N., Lahav, O., Lima, M., Maia, M. A. G., March, M., Marshall, J. L., Martini, P., Miquel, R., Nugent, P., Plazas, A. A., Romer, A. K., Sanchez, E., Scarpine, V., Schubnell, M., Sevilla-Noarbe, I., Smith, R. C., Sobreira, F., Suchyta, E., Swanson, M. E. C., Thomas, R. C., & Walker, A. R. DES15E2mlf: A Spectroscopically Confirmed Superluminous Supernova that Exploded 3.5 Gyr After the Big Bang. United States. doi:10.1093/mnras/stx1467.
Pan, Y. -C., Foley, R. J., Smith, M., Galbany, L., D’Andrea, C. B., Gonzalez-Gaitan, S., Jarvis, M. J., Kessler, R., Kovacs, E., Lidman, C., Nichol, R. C., Papadopoulos, A., Sako, M., Sullivan, M., Abbott, T. M. C., Abdalla, F. B., Annis, J., Bechtol, K., Benoit-Lévy, A., Brooks, D., Buckley-Geer, E., Burke, D. L., Rosell, A. Carnero, Carrasco Kind, M., Carretero, J., Castander, F. J., Cunha, C. E., da Costa, L. N., Desai, S., Diehl, H. T., Doel, P., Eifler, T. F., Finley, D. A., Flaugher, B., Frieman, J., García-Bellido, J., Goldstein, D. A., Gruen, D., Gruendl, R. A., Gschwend, J., Gutierrez, G., James, D. J., Kim, A. G., Krause, E., Kuehn, K., Kuropatkin, N., Lahav, O., Lima, M., Maia, M. A. G., March, M., Marshall, J. L., Martini, P., Miquel, R., Nugent, P., Plazas, A. A., Romer, A. K., Sanchez, E., Scarpine, V., Schubnell, M., Sevilla-Noarbe, I., Smith, R. C., Sobreira, F., Suchyta, E., Swanson, M. E. C., Thomas, R. C., and Walker, A. R. Tue . "DES15E2mlf: A Spectroscopically Confirmed Superluminous Supernova that Exploded 3.5 Gyr After the Big Bang". United States. doi:10.1093/mnras/stx1467.
@article{osti_1390594,
title = {DES15E2mlf: A Spectroscopically Confirmed Superluminous Supernova that Exploded 3.5 Gyr After the Big Bang},
author = {Pan, Y. -C. and Foley, R. J. and Smith, M. and Galbany, L. and D’Andrea, C. B. and Gonzalez-Gaitan, S. and Jarvis, M. J. and Kessler, R. and Kovacs, E. and Lidman, C. and Nichol, R. C. and Papadopoulos, A. and Sako, M. and Sullivan, M. and Abbott, T. M. C. and Abdalla, F. B. and Annis, J. and Bechtol, K. and Benoit-Lévy, A. and Brooks, D. and Buckley-Geer, E. and Burke, D. L. and Rosell, A. Carnero and Carrasco Kind, M. and Carretero, J. and Castander, F. J. and Cunha, C. E. and da Costa, L. N. and Desai, S. and Diehl, H. T. and Doel, P. and Eifler, T. F. and Finley, D. A. and Flaugher, B. and Frieman, J. and García-Bellido, J. and Goldstein, D. A. and Gruen, D. and Gruendl, R. A. and Gschwend, J. and Gutierrez, G. and James, D. J. and Kim, A. G. and Krause, E. and Kuehn, K. and Kuropatkin, N. and Lahav, O. and Lima, M. and Maia, M. A. G. and March, M. and Marshall, J. L. and Martini, P. and Miquel, R. and Nugent, P. and Plazas, A. A. and Romer, A. K. and Sanchez, E. and Scarpine, V. and Schubnell, M. and Sevilla-Noarbe, I. and Smith, R. C. and Sobreira, F. and Suchyta, E. and Swanson, M. E. C. and Thomas, R. C. and Walker, A. R.},
abstractNote = {We present the Dark Energy Survey (DES) discovery of DES15E2mlf, the most distant superluminous supernova (SLSN) spectroscopically con rmed to date. The light curves and Gemini spectroscopy of DES15E2mlf indicate that it is a Type I superluminous supernova (SLSN-I) at z = 1:861 (a lookback time of 10 Gyr) and peaking at MAB = -22:3 0:1 mag. Given the high redshift, our data probe the rest-frame ultraviolet (1400{3500 A) properties of the SN, nding velocity of the Ciii feature changes by 5600kms-1 over 14 days around maximum light. We nd the host galaxy of DES15E2mlf has a stellar mass of 3:5+3:6 -2:4 109 M , which is more massive than the typical SLSN-I host galaxy.},
doi = {10.1093/mnras/stx1467},
journal = {Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society},
number = 4,
volume = 470,
place = {United States},
year = {Tue Jun 13 00:00:00 EDT 2017},
month = {Tue Jun 13 00:00:00 EDT 2017}
}

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  • We present the Dark Energy Survey (DES) discovery of DES15E2mlf, the most distant superluminous supernova (SLSN) spectroscopically confirmed to date. The light curves and Gemini spectroscopy of DES15E2mlf indicate that it is a Type I superluminous supernova (SLSN-I) at z = 1.861 (a lookback time of ~10 Gyr) and peaking at M_AB = -22.3 +/- 0.1 mag. Given the high redshift, our data probe the rest-frame ultraviolet (1400-3500 A) properties of the SN, finding velocity of the C III feature changes by ~5600 km/s over 14 days around maximum light. We find the host galaxy of DES15E2mlf has a stellarmore » mass of 3.5^+3.6_-2.4 x 10^9 M_sun, which is more massive than the typical SLSN-I host galaxy.« less
    Cited by 5
  • We present the Dark Energy Survey (DES) discovery of DES15E2mlf, the most distant superluminous supernova (SLSN) spectroscopically confirmed to date. The light curves and Gemini spectroscopy of DES15E2mlf indicate that it is a Type I superluminous supernova (SLSN-I) at z = 1.861 (a lookback time of ~10 Gyr) and peaking at M_AB = -22.3 +/- 0.1 mag. Given the high redshift, our data probe the rest-frame ultraviolet (1400-3500 A) properties of the SN, finding velocity of the C III feature changes by ~5600 km/s over 14 days around maximum light. We find the host galaxy of DES15E2mlf has a stellarmore » mass of 3.5^+3.6_-2.4 x 10^9 M_sun, which is more massive than the typical SLSN-I host galaxy.« less
    Cited by 5
  • Cited by 5
  • We present high signal-to-noise ratio Gemini and MMT spectroscopy of the optical afterglow of the gamma-ray burst (GRB) 130606A at redshift z = 5.913, discovered by Swift. This is the first high-redshift GRB afterglow to have spectra of comparable quality to those of z Almost-Equal-To 6 quasars. The data exhibit a smooth continuum at near-infrared wavelengths that is sharply cut off blueward of 8410 A due to absorption from Ly{alpha} at redshift z Almost-Equal-To 5.91, with some flux transmitted through the Ly{alpha} forest between 7000 and 7800 A. We use column densities inferred from metal absorption lines to constrain themore » metallicity of the host galaxy between a lower limit of [Si/H] {approx}> -1.7 and an upper limit of [S/H] {approx}< -0.5 set by the non-detection of S II absorption. We demonstrate consistency between the dramatic evolution in the transmission fraction of Ly{alpha} seen in this spectrum over the redshift range z = 4.9-5.85 with that previously measured from observations of high-redshift quasars. There is an extended redshift interval of {Delta}z = 0.12 in the Ly{alpha} forest at z = 5.77 with no detected transmission, leading to a 3{sigma} upper limit on the mean Ly{alpha} transmission fraction of {approx}<0.2% (or {tau}{sub GP}{sup eff} (Ly{alpha}) > 6.4). This is comparable to the lowest-redshift Gunn-Peterson troughs found in quasar spectra. Some Ly{beta} and Ly{gamma} transmission is detected in this redshift window, indicating that it is not completely opaque, and hence that the intergalactic medium (IGM) is nonetheless mostly ionized at these redshifts. We set a 2{sigma} upper limit of 0.11 on the neutral fraction of the IGM at the redshift of the GRB from the lack of a Ly{alpha} red damping wing, assuming a model with a constant neutral density. GRB 130606A thus for the first time realizes the promise of GRBs as probes of the first galaxies and cosmic reionization.« less