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Title: Effect of cathode thickness on the performance of planar Na-NiCl 2 battery

Abstract

Na-beta alumina batteries (NBBs) are one of the most promising technologies for renewable energy storage and grid applications. Commercial NBBs are typically constructed in tubular designs, primarily because of their ease of sealing. But, planar designs are considered superior to tubular counterparts in terms of power output, cell packing, ease of assembly, and thermal management. In this paper, the performance of planar NBBs has been evaluated at an intermediate temperature. In particular, planar Na-NiCl 2 cells with different cathode loadings and thicknesses have been studied at 190 °C. We investigated the effects of the cathode thickness, charging current, and discharging power output on the cell capacity and resistance. More than 60% of theoretical cell capacity was retained with constant discharging power levels of 200, 175, and 100 mW/cm 2 for 1x, 2x, and 3x cathode loadings, respectively. The cell resistance with 1x and 2x cathode loadings was dominated by ohmic resistance with discharging currents up to 105 mA/cm 2, while for 3x cathode loading, it was primarily dominated by ohmic resistance with currents less than 66.67 mA/cm 2 and by polarization resistance above 66.67 mA/cm 2.

Authors:
ORCiD logo [1];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [2];  [1];  [1]
  1. Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States). Electrochemical Materials and Systems Group
  2. Research Inst. of Industrial Science and Technology, Pohang (South Korea). Materials Research Division
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability (OE)
OSTI Identifier:
1390576
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1395285
Report Number(s):
PNNL-SA-125568
Journal ID: ISSN 0378-7753; PII: S0378775317309114
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC05-76RL01830; 57558; 20158510050010
Resource Type:
Journal Article: Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Journal of Power Sources
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 365; Journal Issue: C; Journal ID: ISSN 0378-7753
Publisher:
Elsevier
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
25 ENERGY STORAGE; Na-beta alumina batteries; Tubular and planar designs; Na-NiCl2 cell; Electrode thickness; Power output

Citation Formats

Lu, Xiaochuan, Chang, Hee Jung, Bonnett, Jeff F., Canfield, Nathan L., Jung, Keeyoung, Sprenkle, Vincent L., and Li, Guosheng. Effect of cathode thickness on the performance of planar Na-NiCl 2 battery. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2017.07.029.
Lu, Xiaochuan, Chang, Hee Jung, Bonnett, Jeff F., Canfield, Nathan L., Jung, Keeyoung, Sprenkle, Vincent L., & Li, Guosheng. Effect of cathode thickness on the performance of planar Na-NiCl 2 battery. United States. doi:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2017.07.029.
Lu, Xiaochuan, Chang, Hee Jung, Bonnett, Jeff F., Canfield, Nathan L., Jung, Keeyoung, Sprenkle, Vincent L., and Li, Guosheng. Wed . "Effect of cathode thickness on the performance of planar Na-NiCl 2 battery". United States. doi:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2017.07.029. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1390576.
@article{osti_1390576,
title = {Effect of cathode thickness on the performance of planar Na-NiCl 2 battery},
author = {Lu, Xiaochuan and Chang, Hee Jung and Bonnett, Jeff F. and Canfield, Nathan L. and Jung, Keeyoung and Sprenkle, Vincent L. and Li, Guosheng},
abstractNote = {Na-beta alumina batteries (NBBs) are one of the most promising technologies for renewable energy storage and grid applications. Commercial NBBs are typically constructed in tubular designs, primarily because of their ease of sealing. But, planar designs are considered superior to tubular counterparts in terms of power output, cell packing, ease of assembly, and thermal management. In this paper, the performance of planar NBBs has been evaluated at an intermediate temperature. In particular, planar Na-NiCl2 cells with different cathode loadings and thicknesses have been studied at 190 °C. We investigated the effects of the cathode thickness, charging current, and discharging power output on the cell capacity and resistance. More than 60% of theoretical cell capacity was retained with constant discharging power levels of 200, 175, and 100 mW/cm2 for 1x, 2x, and 3x cathode loadings, respectively. The cell resistance with 1x and 2x cathode loadings was dominated by ohmic resistance with discharging currents up to 105 mA/cm2, while for 3x cathode loading, it was primarily dominated by ohmic resistance with currents less than 66.67 mA/cm2 and by polarization resistance above 66.67 mA/cm2.},
doi = {10.1016/j.jpowsour.2017.07.029},
journal = {Journal of Power Sources},
number = C,
volume = 365,
place = {United States},
year = {Wed Oct 18 00:00:00 EDT 2017},
month = {Wed Oct 18 00:00:00 EDT 2017}
}

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