skip to main content
OSTI.GOV title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: Large area nanoimprint enables ultra-precise x-ray diffraction gratings

Authors:
; ;
Publication Date:
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
OSTI Identifier:
1390385
Grant/Contract Number:
AC02-05CH11231
Resource Type:
Journal Article: Published Article
Journal Name:
Optics Express
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 25; Journal Issue: 19; Related Information: CHORUS Timestamp: 2017-09-14 12:09:56; Journal ID: ISSN 1094-4087
Publisher:
Optical Society of America
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English

Citation Formats

Voronov, D. L., Gullikson, E. M., and Padmore, H. A. Large area nanoimprint enables ultra-precise x-ray diffraction gratings. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.1364/OE.25.023334.
Voronov, D. L., Gullikson, E. M., & Padmore, H. A. Large area nanoimprint enables ultra-precise x-ray diffraction gratings. United States. doi:10.1364/OE.25.023334.
Voronov, D. L., Gullikson, E. M., and Padmore, H. A. Thu . "Large area nanoimprint enables ultra-precise x-ray diffraction gratings". United States. doi:10.1364/OE.25.023334.
@article{osti_1390385,
title = {Large area nanoimprint enables ultra-precise x-ray diffraction gratings},
author = {Voronov, D. L. and Gullikson, E. M. and Padmore, H. A.},
abstractNote = {},
doi = {10.1364/OE.25.023334},
journal = {Optics Express},
number = 19,
volume = 25,
place = {United States},
year = {Thu Sep 14 00:00:00 EDT 2017},
month = {Thu Sep 14 00:00:00 EDT 2017}
}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
Publisher's Version of Record at 10.1364/OE.25.023334

Citation Metrics:
Cited by: 1work
Citation information provided by
Web of Science

Save / Share:
  • Diffraction gratings are used from micron to nanometer wavelengths as dispersing elements in optical instruments. At shorter wavelengths, crystals can be used as diffracting elements, but due to the 3D nature of the interaction with light are wavelength selective rather than wavelength dispersing. There is an urgent need to extend grating technology into the x-ray domain of wavelengths from 1 to 0.1 nm, but this requires the use of gratings that have a faceted surface in which the facet angles are very small, typically less than 1°. Small facet angles are also required in the extreme ultra-violet and soft x-ray energymore » ranges in free electron laser applications, in order to reduce power density below a critical damage threshold. In this work, we demonstrate a technique based on anisotropic etching of silicon designed to produce very small angle facets with a high degree of perfection.« less
  • Cited by 3
  • X-ray lithography, which uses highly directional synchrotron radiation, is one of the technologies that can be used for fabricating micrometer-sized structures. In X-ray lithography, the accuracy of the fabricated structure depends largely on the accuracy of the X-ray mask. Since X-ray radiation is highly directional, a micro-fabrication technology that produces un-tapered and high aspect ratio highly absorbent structures on a low absorbent membrane is required. Conventionally, a resin material is used as the support membrane for large area X-ray masks. However, resin membranes have the disadvantage that they can sag after several cycles of X-ray exposure due to the heatmore » generated by the X-rays. Therefore, we proposed and used thin carbon wafers for the membrane material because carbon has an extremely small thermal expansion coefficient. We fabricated new carbon membrane X-ray masks, and these results of X-ray lithography demonstrate the superior performance.« less
  • Boron is the critical trace element in the production of high quality steel, creating a great demand for an efficient detection method of the B-K emission band at around 6.76 nm. To meet this demand we made a simulation study and obtained a practical method to improve the diffraction efficiency of metal-coated laminar-type gratings for a grazing incidence flat-field spectrograph by overcoating a sufficiently transparent high-density material. In the simulation the diffraction efficiency in a spectral region of 3.5-8.5 nm was computed for several combinations of overcoating materials and coating metals, with various thicknesses of the overcoating layer. The resultmore » obtained are: (1) the best overcoating material is high-density diamond-like carbon (DLC) having a density of 3.1 g/cm{sup 3}, (2) its optimum thickness is 24 nm at an angle of incidence of 87.0°, and (3) with this thickness the first-order diffraction efficiency is expected to reach 29.7 %, which well exceeds 15.6 % for Ni-coated (or 14.1 % for Au-coated) grating.« less
  • Gold transmission diffraction gratings used for x-ray spectroscopy must sometimes be rotationally aligned to the axis of a diagnostic instrument to within sub-milliradian accuracy. We have fabricated transmission diffraction gratings with high line-densities (grating period of 200 and 300 nm) using uv holographic and x-ray lithography. Since the submicron features of the gratings are not optically visible, precision alignment is time consuming and difficult to verify in situ. We have developed a technique to write an optically visible alignment pattern onto these gratings using a scanning electron microscope (SEM). At high magnification (15000 X) several submicron lines of the gratingmore » are observable in the SEM, making it possible to write an alignment pattern parallel to the grating lines in an electron-beam-sensitive coating that overlays the grating. We create an alignment pattern by following a 1-cm-long grating line using the SEM's joystick-controlled translation stage. By following the same grating line we are assured the traveled direction of the SEM electron beam is parallel to the grating to better than 10 ..mu..radian. The electron-beam-exposed line-width can be large (5 to 15 ..mu..m wide) depending on the SEM magnification, and is therefore optically visible. The exposed pattern is eventually made a permanent feature of the grating by ion beam etching or gold electroplating. The pattern can be used to accurately align the grating to the axis of a diagnostic instrument. More importantly, the alignment of the grating can be quickly verified in situ.« less