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Title: Witnessing the growth of the nearest galaxy cluster: thermodynamics of the Virgo Cluster outskirts

Abstract

Here, we present results from Suzaku Key Project observations of the Virgo Cluster, the nearest galaxy cluster to us, mapping its X-ray properties along four long ‘arms’ extending beyond the virial radius. The entropy profiles along all four azimuths increase with radius, then level out beyond ~0.5r 200, while the average pressure at large radii exceeds Planck Sunyaev–Zel'dovich measurements. These results can be explained by enhanced gas density fluctuations (clumping) in the cluster's outskirts. Using a standard Navarro, Frenk and White model, we estimate a virial mass, radius and concentration parameter of M 200 = 1.05 ± 0.02 × 10 14 M⊙, r 200 = 974.1 ± 5.7 kpc and c = 8.8 ± 0.2, respectively. The inferred cumulative baryon fraction exceeds the cosmic mean at r ~r 200 along the major axis, suggesting enhanced gas clumping possibly sourced by a candidate large-scale structure filament along the north–south direction. The Suzaku data reveal a large-scale sloshing pattern, with two new cold fronts detected at radii of 233 and 280 kpc along the western and southern arms, respectively. Two high-temperature regions are also identified 1 Mpc towards the south and 605 kpc towards the west of M87, likely representing shocks associatedmore » with the ongoing cluster growth. Although systematic uncertainties in measuring the metallicity for low-temperature plasma remain, the data at large radii appear consistent with a uniform metal distribution on scales of ~90 × 180 kpc and larger, providing additional support for the early chemical enrichment scenario driven by galactic winds at redshifts of 2–3.« less

Authors:
 [1];  [2];  [3];  [4];  [3]
  1. Institute of Space and Astronautical Science (ISAS), Kanagawa (Japan)
  2. MTA-Eotvos Lorand Univ. Lendulet Hot Universe Research Group, Budapest (Hungary); Masaryk Univ., Brno (Czech Republic)
  3. Stanford Univ., Stanford, CA (United States)
  4. Stanford Univ., Stanford, CA (United States); SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
OSTI Identifier:
1390322
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC02-76SF00515
Resource Type:
Journal Article: Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 469; Journal Issue: 2; Journal ID: ISSN 0035-8711
Publisher:
Royal Astronomical Society
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
79 ASTRONOMY AND ASTROPHYSICS; galaxies: clusters: individual: Virgo; galaxies: clusters: intracluster medium; X-rays: galaxies: clusters

Citation Formats

Simionescu, A., Werner, N., Mantz, A., Allen, S. W., and Urban, O.. Witnessing the growth of the nearest galaxy cluster: thermodynamics of the Virgo Cluster outskirts. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.1093/mnras/stx919.
Simionescu, A., Werner, N., Mantz, A., Allen, S. W., & Urban, O.. Witnessing the growth of the nearest galaxy cluster: thermodynamics of the Virgo Cluster outskirts. United States. doi:10.1093/mnras/stx919.
Simionescu, A., Werner, N., Mantz, A., Allen, S. W., and Urban, O.. Mon . "Witnessing the growth of the nearest galaxy cluster: thermodynamics of the Virgo Cluster outskirts". United States. doi:10.1093/mnras/stx919. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1390322.
@article{osti_1390322,
title = {Witnessing the growth of the nearest galaxy cluster: thermodynamics of the Virgo Cluster outskirts},
author = {Simionescu, A. and Werner, N. and Mantz, A. and Allen, S. W. and Urban, O.},
abstractNote = {Here, we present results from Suzaku Key Project observations of the Virgo Cluster, the nearest galaxy cluster to us, mapping its X-ray properties along four long ‘arms’ extending beyond the virial radius. The entropy profiles along all four azimuths increase with radius, then level out beyond ~0.5r200, while the average pressure at large radii exceeds Planck Sunyaev–Zel'dovich measurements. These results can be explained by enhanced gas density fluctuations (clumping) in the cluster's outskirts. Using a standard Navarro, Frenk and White model, we estimate a virial mass, radius and concentration parameter of M200 = 1.05 ± 0.02 × 1014 M⊙, r200 = 974.1 ± 5.7 kpc and c = 8.8 ± 0.2, respectively. The inferred cumulative baryon fraction exceeds the cosmic mean at r ~r200 along the major axis, suggesting enhanced gas clumping possibly sourced by a candidate large-scale structure filament along the north–south direction. The Suzaku data reveal a large-scale sloshing pattern, with two new cold fronts detected at radii of 233 and 280 kpc along the western and southern arms, respectively. Two high-temperature regions are also identified 1 Mpc towards the south and 605 kpc towards the west of M87, likely representing shocks associated with the ongoing cluster growth. Although systematic uncertainties in measuring the metallicity for low-temperature plasma remain, the data at large radii appear consistent with a uniform metal distribution on scales of ~90 × 180 kpc and larger, providing additional support for the early chemical enrichment scenario driven by galactic winds at redshifts of 2–3.},
doi = {10.1093/mnras/stx919},
journal = {Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society},
number = 2,
volume = 469,
place = {United States},
year = {Mon Apr 17 00:00:00 EDT 2017},
month = {Mon Apr 17 00:00:00 EDT 2017}
}

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