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Title: Soil carbon fractions and biological activity based indices can be used to study the impact of land management and ecological successions

Abstract

Soil organic carbon (SOC) is a strong indicator of soil health. Development of efficient soil quality indicators is crucial to better understand the impact of land management strategies on the recovery of degraded ecosystems. We hypothesized that SOC fractions and biological attributes can compose strong soil quality indicators to assess an ecosystem recovery following disturbance. Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate the use of soil biological activity and SOC fractions to study the impact of different land use systems and ecological successions in ecosystem recovery. We selected six land use systems: tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) cultivation; pastureland; reforested land with Eucalyptus sp.; and natural ecological successions with 10, 20 and 35 years of vegetation regeneration, respectively. We collected disturbed and undisturbed soil samples in triplicate at 0–5, 5–10, 10–20 and 20–40 cm depth intervals. Several fractionation approaches were used to determine SOC pools: hot water extractable organic carbon, permanganate oxidized organic carbon, particulate organic carbon, mineral associated organic carbon and total SOC. The activity of the enzyme arylsulfatase was used to represent soil biological attributes. We calculated three indices to represent the soil quality: carbon management index, soil resilience index and biological activity index. Our results suggest thatmore » the SOC fractions and the enzyme activity followed the increase of vegetation complexity of the ecological succession stages. The labile SOC pool, in addition to enzyme activity, was the most sensitive variable to assess land use changes. The biomass-C input was considered to be the main reason of SOC increase, and the gains of labile SOC fractions were directly related to the increase of SOC stocks. Both, biological and carbon management indices were efficient tools to characterize the impact of studied management systems. Also, we found that assessment of deeper soil layers (20–40 cm) was extremely important as incomplete inferences might be reached while evaluating only surface soil layers (0–20 cm). Here, we conclude that the carbon management and biological indices captured the stage of soil degradation and the influence of vegetation diversity in the soil resilience restoration, providing an advance in monitoring strategies that can be reproducible in any environment.« less

Authors:
 [1];  [1];  [1];  [2];  [3];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [4];  [1]
  1. State Univ. of Ponta Grossa, Ponta Grossa, PR (Brazil)
  2. Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)
  3. Technical Univ. of Munich, Bayern (Germany)
  4. EMBRAPA instrumentacao agropecuaria, Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Biological and Environmental Research (BER) (SC-23)
OSTI Identifier:
1389617
Grant/Contract Number:
AC02-06CH11357
Resource Type:
Journal Article: Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Ecological Indicators
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 84; Journal Issue: C; Journal ID: ISSN 1470-160X
Publisher:
Elsevier
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
54 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES; Biodiversity; Carbon storage; Enzyme activity; Land use change; SOC pools

Citation Formats

de Moraes Sa, Joao Carlos, Potma Goncalves, Daniel Ruiz, Ferreira, Lucimara Aparecida, Mishra, Umakant, Inagaki, Thiago Massao, Ferreira Furlan, Flavia Juliana, Moro, Rosemeri Segecin, Floriani, Nicolas, Briedis, Clever, and de Oliveira Ferreira, Ademir. Soil carbon fractions and biological activity based indices can be used to study the impact of land management and ecological successions. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.1016/j.ecolind.2017.08.029.
de Moraes Sa, Joao Carlos, Potma Goncalves, Daniel Ruiz, Ferreira, Lucimara Aparecida, Mishra, Umakant, Inagaki, Thiago Massao, Ferreira Furlan, Flavia Juliana, Moro, Rosemeri Segecin, Floriani, Nicolas, Briedis, Clever, & de Oliveira Ferreira, Ademir. Soil carbon fractions and biological activity based indices can be used to study the impact of land management and ecological successions. United States. doi:10.1016/j.ecolind.2017.08.029.
de Moraes Sa, Joao Carlos, Potma Goncalves, Daniel Ruiz, Ferreira, Lucimara Aparecida, Mishra, Umakant, Inagaki, Thiago Massao, Ferreira Furlan, Flavia Juliana, Moro, Rosemeri Segecin, Floriani, Nicolas, Briedis, Clever, and de Oliveira Ferreira, Ademir. 2017. "Soil carbon fractions and biological activity based indices can be used to study the impact of land management and ecological successions". United States. doi:10.1016/j.ecolind.2017.08.029.
@article{osti_1389617,
title = {Soil carbon fractions and biological activity based indices can be used to study the impact of land management and ecological successions},
author = {de Moraes Sa, Joao Carlos and Potma Goncalves, Daniel Ruiz and Ferreira, Lucimara Aparecida and Mishra, Umakant and Inagaki, Thiago Massao and Ferreira Furlan, Flavia Juliana and Moro, Rosemeri Segecin and Floriani, Nicolas and Briedis, Clever and de Oliveira Ferreira, Ademir},
abstractNote = {Soil organic carbon (SOC) is a strong indicator of soil health. Development of efficient soil quality indicators is crucial to better understand the impact of land management strategies on the recovery of degraded ecosystems. We hypothesized that SOC fractions and biological attributes can compose strong soil quality indicators to assess an ecosystem recovery following disturbance. Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate the use of soil biological activity and SOC fractions to study the impact of different land use systems and ecological successions in ecosystem recovery. We selected six land use systems: tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) cultivation; pastureland; reforested land with Eucalyptus sp.; and natural ecological successions with 10, 20 and 35 years of vegetation regeneration, respectively. We collected disturbed and undisturbed soil samples in triplicate at 0–5, 5–10, 10–20 and 20–40 cm depth intervals. Several fractionation approaches were used to determine SOC pools: hot water extractable organic carbon, permanganate oxidized organic carbon, particulate organic carbon, mineral associated organic carbon and total SOC. The activity of the enzyme arylsulfatase was used to represent soil biological attributes. We calculated three indices to represent the soil quality: carbon management index, soil resilience index and biological activity index. Our results suggest that the SOC fractions and the enzyme activity followed the increase of vegetation complexity of the ecological succession stages. The labile SOC pool, in addition to enzyme activity, was the most sensitive variable to assess land use changes. The biomass-C input was considered to be the main reason of SOC increase, and the gains of labile SOC fractions were directly related to the increase of SOC stocks. Both, biological and carbon management indices were efficient tools to characterize the impact of studied management systems. Also, we found that assessment of deeper soil layers (20–40 cm) was extremely important as incomplete inferences might be reached while evaluating only surface soil layers (0–20 cm). Here, we conclude that the carbon management and biological indices captured the stage of soil degradation and the influence of vegetation diversity in the soil resilience restoration, providing an advance in monitoring strategies that can be reproducible in any environment.},
doi = {10.1016/j.ecolind.2017.08.029},
journal = {Ecological Indicators},
number = C,
volume = 84,
place = {United States},
year = 2017,
month = 8
}

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  • Land use, soil management, and cropping systems affect stock, distribution, and residence time of soil organic carbon (SOC). Therefore, SOC stock and its depth distribution and association with primary and secondary particles were assessed in long-term experiments at the North Appalachian Experimental Watersheds near Coshocton, Ohio, through *13C techniques. These measurements were made for five land use and soil management treatments: (1) secondary forest, (2) meadow converted from no-till (NT) corn since 1988, (3) continuous NT corn since 1970, (4) continuous NT corn-soybean in rotation with ryegrass since 1984, and (5) conventional plow till (PT) corn since 1984. Soil samplesmore » to 70-cm depth were obtained in 2002 in all treatments. Significant differences in soil properties were observed among land use treatments for 0 to 5-cm depth. The SOC concentration (g C kg*1 of soil) in the 0 to 5-cm layer was 44.0 in forest, 24.0 in meadow, 26.1 in NT corn, 19.5 in NT corn-soybean, and 11.1 i n PT corn. The fraction of total C in corn residue converted to SOC was 11.9% for NT corn, 10.6% for NT corn-soybean, and 8.3% for PT corn. The proportion of SOC derived from corn residue was 96% for NT corn in the 0 to 5-cm layer, and it decreased gradually with depth and was 50% in PT corn. The mean SOC sequestration rate on conversion from PT to NT was 280 kg C ha*1 y*1. The SOC concentration decreased with reduction in aggregate size, and macro-aggregates contained 15 to 35% more SOC concentration than microaggregates. In comparison with forest, the magnitude of SOC depletion in the 0 to 30-cm layer was 15.5 Mg C/ha (24.0%) in meadow, 12.7 Mg C/ha (19.8%) in NT corn, 17.3 Mg C/ha (26.8%) in NT corn-soybean, and 23.3 Mg C/ha (35.1%) in PT corn. The SOC had a long turnover time when located deeper in the subsoil.« less
  • Cultivation of the terrestrial land surface can create either a source or sink of atmospheric CO₂, depending on land management practices. The Community Land Model (CLM) provides a useful tool for exploring how land use and management impact the soil carbon pool at regional to global scales. CLM was recently updated to include representation of managed lands growing maize, soybean, and spring wheat. In this study, CLM-Crop is used to investigate the impacts of various management practices, including fertilizer use and differential rates of crop residue removal, on the soil organic carbon (SOC) storage of croplands in the continental Unitedmore » States over approximately a 170-year period. Results indicate that total US SOC stocks have already lost over 8 Pg C (10%) due to land cultivation practices (e.g., fertilizer application, cultivar choice, and residue removal), compared to a land surface composed of native vegetation (i.e., grasslands). After long periods of cultivation, individual subgrids (the equivalent of a field plot) growing maize and soybean lost up to 65% of the carbon stored compared to a grassland site. Crop residue management showed the greatest effect on soil carbon storage, with low and medium residue returns resulting in additional losses of 5 and 3.5%, respectively, in US carbon storage, while plots with high residue returns stored 2% more carbon. Nitrogenous fertilizer can alter the amount of soil carbon stocks significantly. Under current levels of crop residue return, not applying fertilizer resulted in a 5% loss of soil carbon. Our simulations indicate that disturbance through cultivation will always result in a loss of soil carbon, and management practices will have a large influence on the magnitude of SOC loss.« less
    Cited by 3
  • Cultivation of the terrestrial land surface can create either a source or sink of atmospheric CO 2, depending on land management practices. The Community Land Model (CLM) provides a useful tool to explore how land use and management impact the soil carbon pool at regional to global scales. CLM was recently updated to include representation of managed lands growing maize, soybean, and spring wheat. In this study, CLM-Crop is used to investigate the impacts of various management practices, including fertilizer use and differential rates of crop residue removal, on the soil organic carbon (SOC) storage of croplands in the continentalmore » United States over approximately a 170 year period. Results indicate that total US SOC stocks have already lost over 8 Pg C (10%) due to land cultivation practices (e.g., fertilizer application, cultivar choice, and residue removal), compared to a land surface composed of native vegetation (i.e., grasslands). After long periods of cultivation, individual plots growing maize and soybean lost up to 65% of the carbon stored, compared to a grassland site. Crop residue management showed the greatest effect on soil carbon storage, with low and medium residue returns resulting in additional losses of 5% and 3.5%, respectively, in US carbon storage, while plots with high residue returns stored 2% more carbon. Nitrogenous fertilizer can alter the amount of soil carbon stocks significantly. Under current levels of crop residue return, not applying fertilizer resulted in a 5% loss of soil carbon. Our simulations indicate that disturbance through cultivation will always result in a loss of soil carbon, and management practices will have a large influence on the magnitude of SOC loss.« less
  • Cultivation of the terrestrial land surface can create either a source or sink of atmospheric CO₂, depending on land management practices. The Community Land Model (CLM) provides a useful tool for exploring how land use and management impact the soil carbon pool at regional to global scales. CLM was recently updated to include representation of managed lands growing maize, soybean, and spring wheat. In this study, CLM-Crop is used to investigate the impacts of various management practices, including fertilizer use and differential rates of crop residue removal, on the soil organic carbon (SOC) storage of croplands in the continental Unitedmore » States over approximately a 170-year period. Results indicate that total US SOC stocks have already lost over 8 Pg C (10%) due to land cultivation practices (e.g., fertilizer application, cultivar choice, and residue removal), compared to a land surface composed of native vegetation (i.e., grasslands). After long periods of cultivation, individual subgrids (the equivalent of a field plot) growing maize and soybean lost up to 65% of the carbon stored compared to a grassland site. Crop residue management showed the greatest effect on soil carbon storage, with low and medium residue returns resulting in additional losses of 5 and 3.5%, respectively, in US carbon storage, while plots with high residue returns stored 2% more carbon. Nitrogenous fertilizer can alter the amount of soil carbon stocks significantly. Under current levels of crop residue return, not applying fertilizer resulted in a 5% loss of soil carbon. Our simulations indicate that disturbance through cultivation will always result in a loss of soil carbon, and management practices will have a large influence on the magnitude of SOC loss.« less
  • Cultivation of the terrestrial land surface can create either a source or sink of atmospheric CO 2, depending on land management practices. The Community Land Model (CLM) provides a useful tool for exploring how land use and management impact the soil carbon pool at regional to global scales. CLM was recently updated to include representation of managed lands growing maize, soybean, and spring wheat. In this study, CLM-Crop is used to investigate the impacts of various management practices, including fertilizer use and differential rates of crop residue removal, on the soil organic carbon (SOC) storage of croplands in the continentalmore » United States over approximately a 170-year period. Results indicate that total US SOC stocks have already lost over 8 Pg C (10%) due to land cultivation practices (e.g., fertilizer application, cultivar choice, and residue removal), compared to a land surface composed of native vegetation (i.e., grasslands). After long periods of cultivation, individual subgrids (the equivalent of a field plot) growing maize and soybean lost up to 65% of the carbon stored compared to a grassland site. Crop residue management showed the greatest effect on soil carbon storage, with low and medium residue returns resulting in additional losses of 5 and 3.5%, respectively, in US carbon storage, while plots with high residue returns stored 2% more carbon. Nitrogenous fertilizer can alter the amount of soil carbon stocks significantly. Under current levels of crop residue return, not applying fertilizer resulted in a 5% loss of soil carbon. Our simulations indicate that disturbance through cultivation will always result in a loss of soil carbon, and management practices will have a large influence on the magnitude of SOC loss.« less