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Title: Projected sensitivity of the SuperCDMS SNOLAB experiment

Abstract

SuperCDMS SNOLAB will be a next-generation experiment aimed at directly detecting low-mass particles (with masses ≤10 GeV/c 2) that may constitute dark matter by using cryogenic detectors of two types (HV and iZIP) and two target materials (germanium and silicon). The experiment is being designed with an initial sensitivity to nuclear recoil cross sections ~1×10 –43 cm 2 for a dark matter particle mass of 1 GeV/c 2, and with capacity to continue exploration to both smaller masses and better sensitivities. The phonon sensitivity of the HV detectors will be sufficient to detect nuclear recoils from sub-GeV dark matter. A detailed calibration of the detector response to low-energy recoils will be needed to optimize running conditions of the HV detectors and to interpret their data for dark matter searches. Low-activity shielding, and the depth of SNOLAB, will reduce most backgrounds, but cosmogenically produced 3H and naturally occurring 32Si will be present in the detectors at some level. Even if these backgrounds are 10 times higher than expected, the science reach of the HV detectors would be over 3 orders of magnitude beyond current results for a dark matter mass of 1 GeV/c 2. The iZIP detectors are relatively insensitive tomore » variations in detector response and backgrounds, and will provide better sensitivity for dark matter particles with masses ≳5 GeV/c 2. The mix of detector types (HV and iZIP), and targets (germanium and silicon), planned for the experiment, as well as flexibility in how the detectors are operated, will allow us to maximize the low-mass reach, and understand the backgrounds that the experiment will encounter. In conclusion, upgrades to the experiment, perhaps with a variety of ultra-low-background cryogenic detectors, will extend dark matter sensitivity down to the “neutrino floor,” where coherent scatters of solar neutrinos become a limiting background.« less

Authors:
; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; more »; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; « less
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
Contributing Org.:
SuperCDMS Collaboration
OSTI Identifier:
1389551
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1350792
Grant/Contract Number:
AC02-76SF00515
Resource Type:
Journal Article: Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Physical Review D
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 95; Journal Issue: 8; Journal ID: ISSN 2470-0010
Publisher:
American Physical Society (APS)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
79 ASTRONOMY AND ASTROPHYSICS; 46 INSTRUMENTATION RELATED TO NUCLEAR SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY

Citation Formats

Agnese, R., Anderson, A. J., Aramaki, T., Arnquist, I., Baker, W., Barker, D., Basu Thakur, R., Bauer, D. A., Borgland, A., Bowles, M. A., Brink, P. L., Bunker, R., Cabrera, B., Caldwell, D. O., Calkins, R., Cartaro, C., Cerdeño, D. G., Chagani, H., Chen, Y., Cooley, J., Cornell, B., Cushman, P., Daal, M., Di Stefano, P. C. F., Doughty, T., Esteban, L., Fallows, S., Figueroa-Feliciano, E., Fritts, M., Gerbier, G., Ghaith, M., Godfrey, G. L., Golwala, S. R., Hall, J., Harris, H. R., Hofer, T., Holmgren, D., Hong, Z., Hoppe, E., Hsu, L., Huber, M. E., Iyer, V., Jardin, D., Jastram, A., Kelsey, M. H., Kennedy, A., Kubik, A., Kurinsky, N. A., Leder, A., Loer, B., Lopez Asamar, E., Lukens, P., Mahapatra, R., Mandic, V., Mast, N., Mirabolfathi, N., Moffatt, R. A., Morales Mendoza, J. D., Orrell, J. L., Oser, S. M., Page, K., Page, W. A., Partridge, R., Pepin, M., Phipps, A., Poudel, S., Pyle, M., Qiu, H., Rau, W., Redl, P., Reisetter, A., Roberts, A., Robinson, A. E., Rogers, H. E., Saab, T., Sadoulet, B., Sander, J., Schneck, K., Schnee, R. W., Serfass, B., Speller, D., Stein, M., Street, J., Tanaka, H. A., Toback, D., Underwood, R., Villano, A. N., von Krosigk, B., Welliver, B., Wilson, J. S., Wright, D. H., Yellin, S., Yen, J. J., Young, B. A., Zhang, X., and Zhao, X.. Projected sensitivity of the SuperCDMS SNOLAB experiment. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.1103/PhysRevD.95.082002.
Agnese, R., Anderson, A. J., Aramaki, T., Arnquist, I., Baker, W., Barker, D., Basu Thakur, R., Bauer, D. A., Borgland, A., Bowles, M. A., Brink, P. L., Bunker, R., Cabrera, B., Caldwell, D. O., Calkins, R., Cartaro, C., Cerdeño, D. G., Chagani, H., Chen, Y., Cooley, J., Cornell, B., Cushman, P., Daal, M., Di Stefano, P. C. F., Doughty, T., Esteban, L., Fallows, S., Figueroa-Feliciano, E., Fritts, M., Gerbier, G., Ghaith, M., Godfrey, G. L., Golwala, S. R., Hall, J., Harris, H. R., Hofer, T., Holmgren, D., Hong, Z., Hoppe, E., Hsu, L., Huber, M. E., Iyer, V., Jardin, D., Jastram, A., Kelsey, M. H., Kennedy, A., Kubik, A., Kurinsky, N. A., Leder, A., Loer, B., Lopez Asamar, E., Lukens, P., Mahapatra, R., Mandic, V., Mast, N., Mirabolfathi, N., Moffatt, R. A., Morales Mendoza, J. D., Orrell, J. L., Oser, S. M., Page, K., Page, W. A., Partridge, R., Pepin, M., Phipps, A., Poudel, S., Pyle, M., Qiu, H., Rau, W., Redl, P., Reisetter, A., Roberts, A., Robinson, A. E., Rogers, H. E., Saab, T., Sadoulet, B., Sander, J., Schneck, K., Schnee, R. W., Serfass, B., Speller, D., Stein, M., Street, J., Tanaka, H. A., Toback, D., Underwood, R., Villano, A. N., von Krosigk, B., Welliver, B., Wilson, J. S., Wright, D. H., Yellin, S., Yen, J. J., Young, B. A., Zhang, X., & Zhao, X.. Projected sensitivity of the SuperCDMS SNOLAB experiment. United States. doi:10.1103/PhysRevD.95.082002.
Agnese, R., Anderson, A. J., Aramaki, T., Arnquist, I., Baker, W., Barker, D., Basu Thakur, R., Bauer, D. A., Borgland, A., Bowles, M. A., Brink, P. L., Bunker, R., Cabrera, B., Caldwell, D. O., Calkins, R., Cartaro, C., Cerdeño, D. G., Chagani, H., Chen, Y., Cooley, J., Cornell, B., Cushman, P., Daal, M., Di Stefano, P. C. F., Doughty, T., Esteban, L., Fallows, S., Figueroa-Feliciano, E., Fritts, M., Gerbier, G., Ghaith, M., Godfrey, G. L., Golwala, S. R., Hall, J., Harris, H. R., Hofer, T., Holmgren, D., Hong, Z., Hoppe, E., Hsu, L., Huber, M. E., Iyer, V., Jardin, D., Jastram, A., Kelsey, M. H., Kennedy, A., Kubik, A., Kurinsky, N. A., Leder, A., Loer, B., Lopez Asamar, E., Lukens, P., Mahapatra, R., Mandic, V., Mast, N., Mirabolfathi, N., Moffatt, R. A., Morales Mendoza, J. D., Orrell, J. L., Oser, S. M., Page, K., Page, W. A., Partridge, R., Pepin, M., Phipps, A., Poudel, S., Pyle, M., Qiu, H., Rau, W., Redl, P., Reisetter, A., Roberts, A., Robinson, A. E., Rogers, H. E., Saab, T., Sadoulet, B., Sander, J., Schneck, K., Schnee, R. W., Serfass, B., Speller, D., Stein, M., Street, J., Tanaka, H. A., Toback, D., Underwood, R., Villano, A. N., von Krosigk, B., Welliver, B., Wilson, J. S., Wright, D. H., Yellin, S., Yen, J. J., Young, B. A., Zhang, X., and Zhao, X.. Fri . "Projected sensitivity of the SuperCDMS SNOLAB experiment". United States. doi:10.1103/PhysRevD.95.082002. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1389551.
@article{osti_1389551,
title = {Projected sensitivity of the SuperCDMS SNOLAB experiment},
author = {Agnese, R. and Anderson, A. J. and Aramaki, T. and Arnquist, I. and Baker, W. and Barker, D. and Basu Thakur, R. and Bauer, D. A. and Borgland, A. and Bowles, M. A. and Brink, P. L. and Bunker, R. and Cabrera, B. and Caldwell, D. O. and Calkins, R. and Cartaro, C. and Cerdeño, D. G. and Chagani, H. and Chen, Y. and Cooley, J. and Cornell, B. and Cushman, P. and Daal, M. and Di Stefano, P. C. F. and Doughty, T. and Esteban, L. and Fallows, S. and Figueroa-Feliciano, E. and Fritts, M. and Gerbier, G. and Ghaith, M. and Godfrey, G. L. and Golwala, S. R. and Hall, J. and Harris, H. R. and Hofer, T. and Holmgren, D. and Hong, Z. and Hoppe, E. and Hsu, L. and Huber, M. E. and Iyer, V. and Jardin, D. and Jastram, A. and Kelsey, M. H. and Kennedy, A. and Kubik, A. and Kurinsky, N. A. and Leder, A. and Loer, B. and Lopez Asamar, E. and Lukens, P. and Mahapatra, R. and Mandic, V. and Mast, N. and Mirabolfathi, N. and Moffatt, R. A. and Morales Mendoza, J. D. and Orrell, J. L. and Oser, S. M. and Page, K. and Page, W. A. and Partridge, R. and Pepin, M. and Phipps, A. and Poudel, S. and Pyle, M. and Qiu, H. and Rau, W. and Redl, P. and Reisetter, A. and Roberts, A. and Robinson, A. E. and Rogers, H. E. and Saab, T. and Sadoulet, B. and Sander, J. and Schneck, K. and Schnee, R. W. and Serfass, B. and Speller, D. and Stein, M. and Street, J. and Tanaka, H. A. and Toback, D. and Underwood, R. and Villano, A. N. and von Krosigk, B. and Welliver, B. and Wilson, J. S. and Wright, D. H. and Yellin, S. and Yen, J. J. and Young, B. A. and Zhang, X. and Zhao, X.},
abstractNote = {SuperCDMS SNOLAB will be a next-generation experiment aimed at directly detecting low-mass particles (with masses ≤10 GeV/c2) that may constitute dark matter by using cryogenic detectors of two types (HV and iZIP) and two target materials (germanium and silicon). The experiment is being designed with an initial sensitivity to nuclear recoil cross sections ~1×10–43 cm2 for a dark matter particle mass of 1 GeV/c2, and with capacity to continue exploration to both smaller masses and better sensitivities. The phonon sensitivity of the HV detectors will be sufficient to detect nuclear recoils from sub-GeV dark matter. A detailed calibration of the detector response to low-energy recoils will be needed to optimize running conditions of the HV detectors and to interpret their data for dark matter searches. Low-activity shielding, and the depth of SNOLAB, will reduce most backgrounds, but cosmogenically produced 3H and naturally occurring 32Si will be present in the detectors at some level. Even if these backgrounds are 10 times higher than expected, the science reach of the HV detectors would be over 3 orders of magnitude beyond current results for a dark matter mass of 1 GeV/c2. The iZIP detectors are relatively insensitive to variations in detector response and backgrounds, and will provide better sensitivity for dark matter particles with masses ≳5 GeV/c2. The mix of detector types (HV and iZIP), and targets (germanium and silicon), planned for the experiment, as well as flexibility in how the detectors are operated, will allow us to maximize the low-mass reach, and understand the backgrounds that the experiment will encounter. In conclusion, upgrades to the experiment, perhaps with a variety of ultra-low-background cryogenic detectors, will extend dark matter sensitivity down to the “neutrino floor,” where coherent scatters of solar neutrinos become a limiting background.},
doi = {10.1103/PhysRevD.95.082002},
journal = {Physical Review D},
number = 8,
volume = 95,
place = {United States},
year = {Fri Apr 07 00:00:00 EDT 2017},
month = {Fri Apr 07 00:00:00 EDT 2017}
}

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  • SuperCDMS SNOLAB will be a next-generation experiment aimed at directly detecting low-mass (< 10 GeV/cmore » $^2$) particles that may constitute dark matter by using cryogenic detectors of two types (HV and iZIP) and two target materials (germanium and silicon). The experiment is being designed with an initial sensitivity to nuclear recoil cross sections ~ 1 x 10$$^{-43}$$ cm$^2$ for a dark matter particle mass of 1 GeV/c$^2$, and with capacity to continue exploration to both smaller masses and better sensitivities. The phonon sensitivity of the HV detectors will be sufficient to detect nuclear recoils from sub-GeV dark matter. A detailed calibration of the detector response to low energy recoils will be needed to optimize running conditions of the HV detectors and to interpret their data for dark matter searches. Low-activity shielding, and the depth of SNOLAB, will reduce most backgrounds, but cosmogenically produced $$^{3}$$H and naturally occurring $$^{32}$$Si will be present in the detectors at some level. Even if these backgrounds are x10 higher than expected, the science reach of the HV detectors would be over three orders of magnitude beyond current results for a dark matter mass of 1 GeV/c$^2$. The iZIP detectors are relatively insensitive to variations in detector response and backgrounds, and will provide better sensitivity for dark matter particle masses (> 5 GeV/c$^2$). The mix of detector types (HV and iZIP), and targets (germanium and silicon), planned for the experiment, as well as flexibility in how the detectors are operated, will allow us to maximize the low-mass reach, and understand the backgrounds that the experiment will encounter. Upgrades to the experiment, perhaps with a variety of ultra-low-background cryogenic detectors, will extend dark matter sensitivity down to the "neutrino floor", where coherent scatters of solar neutrinos become a limiting background.« less
  • SuperCDMS SNOLAB will be a next-generation experiment aimed at directly detecting low-mass particles (with masses ≤ 10 GeV/c^2) that may constitute dark matter by using cryogenic detectors of two types (HV and iZIP) and two target materials (germanium and silicon). The experiment is being designed with an initial sensitivity to nuclear recoil cross sections ~1×10^-43 cm^2 for a dark matter particle mass of 1 GeV/c^2, and with capacity to continue exploration to both smaller masses and better sensitivities. The phonon sensitivity of the HV detectors will be sufficient to detect nuclear recoils from sub-GeV dark matter. A detailed calibration ofmore » the detector response to low-energy recoils will be needed to optimize running conditions of the HV detectors and to interpret their data for dark matter searches. Low-activity shielding, and the depth of SNOLAB, will reduce most backgrounds, but cosmogenically produced H-3 and naturally occurring Si-32 will be present in the detectors at some level. Even if these backgrounds are 10 times higher than expected, the science reach of the HV detectors would be over 3 orders of magnitude beyond current results for a dark matter mass of 1 GeV/c^2. The iZIP detectors are relatively insensitive to variations in detector response and backgrounds, and will provide better sensitivity for dark matter particles with masses ≳5 GeV/c^2. The mix of detector types (HV and iZIP), and targets (germanium and silicon), planned for the experiment, as well as flexibility in how the detectors are operated, will allow us to maximize the low-mass reach, and understand the backgrounds that the experiment will encounter. Upgrades to the experiment, perhaps with a variety of ultra-low-background cryogenic detectors, will extend dark matter sensitivity down to the “neutrino floor,” where coherent scatters of solar neutrinos become a limiting background.« less
  • Cited by 27
  • Beyond the present dark matter direct detection experiment at the Soudan underground laboratory, the SuperCDMS Collaboration is engaged in R and D activities for a 100-kg scale germanium dark matter experiment nominally sited at SNOLAB (2070 m overburden of rock). The expected sensitivity after 3 years of running is 3 x 10{sup -46} cm{sup 2} for the spin-independent cross section, an order of magnitude improvement over present exclusion limits for WIMP masses {approx}80 GeV/c{sup 2}. At this depth, and appropriate design of shielding and cryostat, neutron backgrounds will be negligible. The baseline design is an expanded version of CDMS IImore » with Ge substrates (100 x 33 mm discs) instrumented with the iZIP phonon sensor layout to achieve the electron surface-event rejection power required.« less
  • Scaling cryogenic Germanium-based dark matter detectors to probe smaller WIMP-nucleon cross-sections poses significant challenges in the forms of increased labor, cold hardware, warm electronics and heat load. The development of larger crystals alleviates these issues. The results of ionization tests with two 100 mm diameter, 33 mm thick cylindrical detector-grade Germanium crystals are presented here. Through these results the potential of using such crystals in the Super Cryogenic Dark Matter Search (SuperCDMS) SNOLAB experiment is demonstrated.