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Title: Vogel-Fulcher-Tammann freezing of a thermally fluctuating artificial spin ice probed by x-ray photon correlation spectroscopy

Abstract

We report on the crossover from the thermal to the athermal regime of an artificial spin ice formed from a square array of magnetic islands whose lateral size, 30 nm × 70 nm, is small enough that they are dynamic at room temperature.We used resonant magnetic soft x-ray photon correlation spectroscopy as a method to observe the time-time correlations of the fluctuating magnetic configurations of spin ice during cooling, which are found to slow abruptly as a freezing temperature of T 0 = 178 ± 5 K is approached. This slowing is well described by a Vogel-Fulcher-Tammann law, implying that the frozen state is glassy, with the freezing temperature being commensurate with the strength of magnetostatic interaction energies in the array. The activation temperature, T A = 40 ± 10 K, is much less than that expected from a Stoner-Wohlfarth coherent rotation model. Zerofield- cooled/field-cooled magnetometry reveals a freeing up of fluctuations of states within islands above this temperature, caused by variation in the local anisotropy axes at the oxidised edges. This Vogel-Fulcher-Tammann behavior implies that the system enters a glassy state upon freezing, which is unexpected for a system with a well-defined ground state.

Authors:
 [1];  [2];  [2];  [1];  [3];  [4];  [5];  [2];  [1]
  1. Univ. of Leeds (United Kingdom)
  2. Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC), Oxford (United Kingdom). Rutherford Appleton Lab., ISIS Neutron Source
  3. Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)
  4. Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC), Harwell Campus, Oxford (United Kingdom). Diamond Light Source, Ltd.
  5. Univ. of Glasgow, Scotland (United Kingdom)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Center for Functional Nanomaterials (CFN)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Basic Energy Sciences (BES) (SC-22)
OSTI Identifier:
1389248
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1347265
Report Number(s):
BNL-114268-2017-JA
Journal ID: ISSN 2469-9950; PRBMDO; KC0403020; TRN: US1702699
Grant/Contract Number:  
SC0012704; AC02-98CH10886
Resource Type:
Journal Article: Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Physical Review B
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 95; Journal Issue: 10; Journal ID: ISSN 2469-9950
Publisher:
American Physical Society (APS)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
77 NANOSCIENCE AND NANOTECHNOLOGY; Center for Functional Nanomaterials

Citation Formats

Morley, S. A., Alba Venero, D., Porro, J. M., Riley, S. T., Stein, A., Steadman, P., Stamps, R. L., Langridge, S., and Marrows, C. H.. Vogel-Fulcher-Tammann freezing of a thermally fluctuating artificial spin ice probed by x-ray photon correlation spectroscopy. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.1103/PhysRevB.95.104422.
Morley, S. A., Alba Venero, D., Porro, J. M., Riley, S. T., Stein, A., Steadman, P., Stamps, R. L., Langridge, S., & Marrows, C. H.. Vogel-Fulcher-Tammann freezing of a thermally fluctuating artificial spin ice probed by x-ray photon correlation spectroscopy. United States. doi:10.1103/PhysRevB.95.104422.
Morley, S. A., Alba Venero, D., Porro, J. M., Riley, S. T., Stein, A., Steadman, P., Stamps, R. L., Langridge, S., and Marrows, C. H.. Thu . "Vogel-Fulcher-Tammann freezing of a thermally fluctuating artificial spin ice probed by x-ray photon correlation spectroscopy". United States. doi:10.1103/PhysRevB.95.104422. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1389248.
@article{osti_1389248,
title = {Vogel-Fulcher-Tammann freezing of a thermally fluctuating artificial spin ice probed by x-ray photon correlation spectroscopy},
author = {Morley, S. A. and Alba Venero, D. and Porro, J. M. and Riley, S. T. and Stein, A. and Steadman, P. and Stamps, R. L. and Langridge, S. and Marrows, C. H.},
abstractNote = {We report on the crossover from the thermal to the athermal regime of an artificial spin ice formed from a square array of magnetic islands whose lateral size, 30 nm × 70 nm, is small enough that they are dynamic at room temperature.We used resonant magnetic soft x-ray photon correlation spectroscopy as a method to observe the time-time correlations of the fluctuating magnetic configurations of spin ice during cooling, which are found to slow abruptly as a freezing temperature of T0 = 178 ± 5 K is approached. This slowing is well described by a Vogel-Fulcher-Tammann law, implying that the frozen state is glassy, with the freezing temperature being commensurate with the strength of magnetostatic interaction energies in the array. The activation temperature, TA = 40 ± 10 K, is much less than that expected from a Stoner-Wohlfarth coherent rotation model. Zerofield- cooled/field-cooled magnetometry reveals a freeing up of fluctuations of states within islands above this temperature, caused by variation in the local anisotropy axes at the oxidised edges. This Vogel-Fulcher-Tammann behavior implies that the system enters a glassy state upon freezing, which is unexpected for a system with a well-defined ground state.},
doi = {10.1103/PhysRevB.95.104422},
journal = {Physical Review B},
number = 10,
volume = 95,
place = {United States},
year = {Thu Mar 16 00:00:00 EDT 2017},
month = {Thu Mar 16 00:00:00 EDT 2017}
}

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Works referenced in this record:

Thermal fluctuations in artificial spin ice
journal, June 2014

  • Kapaklis, Vassilios; Arnalds, Unnar B.; Farhan, Alan
  • Nature Nanotechnology, Vol. 9, Issue 7, p. 514-519
  • DOI: 10.1038/nnano.2014.104