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Title: Generation and Use of Thermal Energy in the Industrial Sector and Opportunities to Reduce its Carbon Emissions

Abstract

Changes are occurring throughout the U.S. economy, especially in regard to how energy is generated and used in the electricity, buildings, industrial, and transportation sectors. These changes are being driven by environmental and energy security concerns and by economics. The electric-sector market share of natural gas and variable renewable generation, such as wind and solar photovoltaics (PV), continues to grow. The buildings sector is evolving to meet efficiency standards, the transportation sector is evolving to meet efficiency and renewable fuels standards, and the industrial sector is evolving to reduce emissions. Those changes are driving investment and utilization strategies for generation and other assets. Nuclear and renewable energy sources are important to consider in the energy sector’s evolution because both are considered to be clean and non-carbon-emitting energy sources. The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) are jointly investigating potential synergies between technologies exploiting nuclear and renewable energy sources. The two laboratories have held several joint workshops since 2011. Those workshops brought together experts in both areas to identify synergies and potential opportunities to work together. Workshop participants identified nuclear-renewable hybrid energy systems (N-R HESs) as one of the opportunities and recommended investigating whether N-R HESsmore » could both generate dispatchable electricity without carbon emissions and provide clean energy to industrial processes. They also recommended analyzing the potential for N-R HESs to provide dispatchable capacity to a grid with high penetrations of non-dispatchable resources and to investigate whether real inertia provided by thermal power cycles within N-R HESs provides value to the grid. This report is one of a series of reports INL and NREL are producing to investigate the technical and economic aspects of N-R HESs. Previous reports focused on tightly coupled N-R HESs. Previously, INL analyzed the dynamic performance of two hypothetical N-R HESs and NREL analyzed the optimal economic configurations and operation of the same two N-R HESs. The first of those two is a Texas-synthetic gasoline scenario that includes four subsystems: a nuclear reactor, thermal power cycle, wind power plant, and synthetic gasoline production technology. The second hypothetical N-R HES is an Arizona-desalination scenario with four subsystems: a nuclear reactor, thermal power cycle, PV, and a desalination plant. INL analyzed the technical performance of the same two N-R HESs in another report. In another report NREL used the Texas-synthetic gasoline scenario provides the basis; however, the industrial process was removed. Instead, that N-R HES sells heat directly to an industrial customer. Subsystems that convert electricity to heat were also included. Future analyses are planned for other N-R HES options including one where hydrogen is produced within an N-R HES. This report quantifies greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the industrial sector and identifies opportunities for non-GHG-emitting thermal energy sources, such as N-R HESs, to replace the most significant GHG-emitting U.S. industries based on targeted, process-level analysis of industrial heat requirements.« less

Authors:
 [1];  [2];  [2];  [2];  [1];  [2]
  1. National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)
  2. Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE); USDOE Office of Nuclear Energy (NE)
OSTI Identifier:
1389190
Report Number(s):
INL/EXT-16-39680
TRN: US1800507
DOE Contract Number:  
AC07-05ID14517
Resource Type:
Technical Report
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
54 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES; CARBON; EMISSION; GRIDS; ELECTRICITY; MARKET; ENERGY SYSTEMS; Carbon Emission Reduction; Industrial Heat Users; Thermal Energy Usage

Citation Formats

McMillan, Colin, Boardman, Richard, McKellar, Michael, Sabharwall, Piyush, Ruth, Mark, and Bragg-Sitton, Shannon. Generation and Use of Thermal Energy in the Industrial Sector and Opportunities to Reduce its Carbon Emissions. United States: N. p., 2016. Web. doi:10.2172/1389190.
McMillan, Colin, Boardman, Richard, McKellar, Michael, Sabharwall, Piyush, Ruth, Mark, & Bragg-Sitton, Shannon. Generation and Use of Thermal Energy in the Industrial Sector and Opportunities to Reduce its Carbon Emissions. United States. https://doi.org/10.2172/1389190
McMillan, Colin, Boardman, Richard, McKellar, Michael, Sabharwall, Piyush, Ruth, Mark, and Bragg-Sitton, Shannon. Thu . "Generation and Use of Thermal Energy in the Industrial Sector and Opportunities to Reduce its Carbon Emissions". United States. https://doi.org/10.2172/1389190. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1389190.
@article{osti_1389190,
title = {Generation and Use of Thermal Energy in the Industrial Sector and Opportunities to Reduce its Carbon Emissions},
author = {McMillan, Colin and Boardman, Richard and McKellar, Michael and Sabharwall, Piyush and Ruth, Mark and Bragg-Sitton, Shannon},
abstractNote = {Changes are occurring throughout the U.S. economy, especially in regard to how energy is generated and used in the electricity, buildings, industrial, and transportation sectors. These changes are being driven by environmental and energy security concerns and by economics. The electric-sector market share of natural gas and variable renewable generation, such as wind and solar photovoltaics (PV), continues to grow. The buildings sector is evolving to meet efficiency standards, the transportation sector is evolving to meet efficiency and renewable fuels standards, and the industrial sector is evolving to reduce emissions. Those changes are driving investment and utilization strategies for generation and other assets. Nuclear and renewable energy sources are important to consider in the energy sector’s evolution because both are considered to be clean and non-carbon-emitting energy sources. The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) are jointly investigating potential synergies between technologies exploiting nuclear and renewable energy sources. The two laboratories have held several joint workshops since 2011. Those workshops brought together experts in both areas to identify synergies and potential opportunities to work together. Workshop participants identified nuclear-renewable hybrid energy systems (N-R HESs) as one of the opportunities and recommended investigating whether N-R HESs could both generate dispatchable electricity without carbon emissions and provide clean energy to industrial processes. They also recommended analyzing the potential for N-R HESs to provide dispatchable capacity to a grid with high penetrations of non-dispatchable resources and to investigate whether real inertia provided by thermal power cycles within N-R HESs provides value to the grid. This report is one of a series of reports INL and NREL are producing to investigate the technical and economic aspects of N-R HESs. Previous reports focused on tightly coupled N-R HESs. Previously, INL analyzed the dynamic performance of two hypothetical N-R HESs and NREL analyzed the optimal economic configurations and operation of the same two N-R HESs. The first of those two is a Texas-synthetic gasoline scenario that includes four subsystems: a nuclear reactor, thermal power cycle, wind power plant, and synthetic gasoline production technology. The second hypothetical N-R HES is an Arizona-desalination scenario with four subsystems: a nuclear reactor, thermal power cycle, PV, and a desalination plant. INL analyzed the technical performance of the same two N-R HESs in another report. In another report NREL used the Texas-synthetic gasoline scenario provides the basis; however, the industrial process was removed. Instead, that N-R HES sells heat directly to an industrial customer. Subsystems that convert electricity to heat were also included. Future analyses are planned for other N-R HES options including one where hydrogen is produced within an N-R HES. This report quantifies greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the industrial sector and identifies opportunities for non-GHG-emitting thermal energy sources, such as N-R HESs, to replace the most significant GHG-emitting U.S. industries based on targeted, process-level analysis of industrial heat requirements.},
doi = {10.2172/1389190},
url = {https://www.osti.gov/biblio/1389190}, journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {2016},
month = {9}
}