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Title: Atomic Defects in Monolayer Titanium Carbide (Ti 3 C 2 T x ) MXene

Authors:
; ; ;  [1];  [1];  [1]; ; ;
  1. Department of Materials Science and Engineering, and A. J. Drexel Nanomaterials Institute, Drexel University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104, United States
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Energy Frontier Research Centers (EFRC) (United States). Fluid Interface Reactions, Structures and Transport Center (FIRST)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Basic Energy Sciences (BES) (SC-22)
OSTI Identifier:
1388755
DOE Contract Number:
ERKCC61
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: ACS Nano; Journal Volume: 10; Journal Issue: 10; Related Information: FIRST partners with Oak Ridge National Laboratory (lead); Argonne National Laboratory; Drexel University; Georgia State University; Northwestern University; Pennsylvania State University; Suffolk University; Vanderbilt University; University of Virginia
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
catalysis (heterogeneous), solar (fuels), energy storage (including batteries and capacitors), hydrogen and fuel cells, electrodes - solar, mechanical behavior, charge transport, materials and chemistry by design, synthesis (novel materials)

Citation Formats

Sang, Xiahan, Xie, Yu, Lin, Ming-Wei, Alhabeb, Mohamed, Van Aken, Katherine L., Gogotsi, Yury, Kent, Paul R. C., Xiao, Kai, and Unocic, Raymond R. Atomic Defects in Monolayer Titanium Carbide (Ti 3 C 2 T x ) MXene. United States: N. p., 2016. Web. doi:10.1021/acsnano.6b05240.
Sang, Xiahan, Xie, Yu, Lin, Ming-Wei, Alhabeb, Mohamed, Van Aken, Katherine L., Gogotsi, Yury, Kent, Paul R. C., Xiao, Kai, & Unocic, Raymond R. Atomic Defects in Monolayer Titanium Carbide (Ti 3 C 2 T x ) MXene. United States. doi:10.1021/acsnano.6b05240.
Sang, Xiahan, Xie, Yu, Lin, Ming-Wei, Alhabeb, Mohamed, Van Aken, Katherine L., Gogotsi, Yury, Kent, Paul R. C., Xiao, Kai, and Unocic, Raymond R. 2016. "Atomic Defects in Monolayer Titanium Carbide (Ti 3 C 2 T x ) MXene". United States. doi:10.1021/acsnano.6b05240.
@article{osti_1388755,
title = {Atomic Defects in Monolayer Titanium Carbide (Ti 3 C 2 T x ) MXene},
author = {Sang, Xiahan and Xie, Yu and Lin, Ming-Wei and Alhabeb, Mohamed and Van Aken, Katherine L. and Gogotsi, Yury and Kent, Paul R. C. and Xiao, Kai and Unocic, Raymond R.},
abstractNote = {},
doi = {10.1021/acsnano.6b05240},
journal = {ACS Nano},
number = 10,
volume = 10,
place = {United States},
year = 2016,
month = 9
}
  • Here, the 2D transition metal carbides or nitrides, or MXenes, are emerging as a group of materials showing great promise in lithium ion batteries and supercapacitors. Until now, characterization and properties of single-layer MXenes have been scarcely reported. Here, using scanning transmission electron microscopy, we determined the atomic structure of freestanding monolayer Ti 3C 2T x flakes prepared via the minimally intensive layer delamination method and characterized different point defects that are prevalent in the monolayer flakes. We determine that the Ti vacancy concentration can be controlled by the etchant concentration during preparation. Density function theory-based calculations confirm the defectmore » structures and predict that the defects can influence the surface morphology and termination groups, but do not strongly influence the metallic conductivity. Using devices fabricated from single- and few-layer Ti 3C 2T x MXene flakes, the effect of the number of layers in the flake on conductivity has been demonstrated.« less
  • Two-dimensional (2D) transition metal carbides, carbonitrides, and nitrides (MXenes) were discovered in 2011. Since the original discovery, more than 20 different compositions have been synthesized by the selective etching of MAX phase and other precursors and many more theoretically predicted. They offer a variety of different properties, making the family promising candidates in a wide range of applications, such as energy storage, electromagnetic interference shielding, water purification, electrocatalysis, and medicine. These solution-processable materials have the potential to be highly scalable, deposited by spin, spray, or dip coating, painted or printed, or fabricated in a variety of ways. Due to thismore » promise, the amount of research on MXenes has been increasing, and methods of synthesis and processing are expanding quickly. The fast evolution of the material can also be noticed in the wide range of synthesis and processing protocols that determine the yield of delamination, as well as the quality of the 2D flakes produced. Furthermore we describe the experimental methods and best practices we use to synthesize the most studied MXene, titanium carbide (Ti 3C 2T x), using different etchants and delamination methods. We also explain effects of synthesis parameters on the size and quality of Ti 3C 2T x and suggest the optimal processes for the desired application.« less
  • Herein we show that hydrazine intercalation into 2D titanium carbide (Ti 3C 2-based MXene) results in changes in its surface chemistry by decreasing the amounts of fluorine, OH surface groups and intercalated water. It also creates a pillaring effect between Ti 3C 2T x layers pre-opening the structure and improving the accessability to active sites. Furthermore, the hydrazine treated material has demonstrated a greatly improved capacitance of 250 F g –1 in acidic electrolytes with an excellent cycling ability for electrodes as thick as 75 μm.
  • Heterocyclic pyrrole molecules are in situ aligned and polymerized in the ­absence of an oxidant between layers of the 2D Ti3C2Tx (MXene), resulting in high volumetric and gravimetric capacitances with capacitance retention of 92% after 25 000 cycles at a 100 mV s-1 scan rate.