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Title: 2D metal carbides and nitrides (MXenes) for energy storage

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Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Energy Frontier Research Centers (EFRC) (United States). Fluid Interface Reactions, Structures and Transport Center (FIRST)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Basic Energy Sciences (BES) (SC-22)
OSTI Identifier:
DOE Contract Number:
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Nature Reviews. Materials; Journal Volume: 2; Journal Issue: 2; Related Information: FIRST partners with Oak Ridge National Laboratory (lead); Argonne National Laboratory; Drexel University; Georgia State University; Northwestern University; Pennsylvania State University; Suffolk University; Vanderbilt University; University of Virginia
Country of Publication:
United States
catalysis (heterogeneous), solar (fuels), energy storage (including batteries and capacitors), hydrogen and fuel cells, electrodes - solar, mechanical behavior, charge transport, materials and chemistry by design, synthesis (novel materials)

Citation Formats

Anasori, Babak, Lukatskaya, Maria R., and Gogotsi, Yury. 2D metal carbides and nitrides (MXenes) for energy storage. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.1038/natrevmats.2016.98.
Anasori, Babak, Lukatskaya, Maria R., & Gogotsi, Yury. 2D metal carbides and nitrides (MXenes) for energy storage. United States. doi:10.1038/natrevmats.2016.98.
Anasori, Babak, Lukatskaya, Maria R., and Gogotsi, Yury. Tue . "2D metal carbides and nitrides (MXenes) for energy storage". United States. doi:10.1038/natrevmats.2016.98.
title = {2D metal carbides and nitrides (MXenes) for energy storage},
author = {Anasori, Babak and Lukatskaya, Maria R. and Gogotsi, Yury},
abstractNote = {},
doi = {10.1038/natrevmats.2016.98},
journal = {Nature Reviews. Materials},
number = 2,
volume = 2,
place = {United States},
year = {Tue Jan 17 00:00:00 EST 2017},
month = {Tue Jan 17 00:00:00 EST 2017}
  • The family of 2D transition metal carbides, carbonitrides and nitrides (collectively referred to as MXenes) has expanded rapidly since the discovery of Ti 3C 2 in 2011. The materials reported so far always have surface terminations, such as hydroxyl, oxygen or fluorine, which impart hydrophilicity to their surfaces. About 20 different MXenes have been synthesized, and the structures and properties of dozens more have been theoretically predicted. Furthermore, the availability of solid solutions, the control of surface terminations and a recent discovery of multi-transition-metal layered MXenes offer the potential for synthesis of many new structures. The versatile chemistry of MXenesmore » allows the tuning of properties for applications including energy storage, electromagnetic interference shielding, reinforcement for composites, water purification, gas- and biosensors, lubrication, and photo-, electro- and chemical catalysis. Attractive electronic, optical, plasmonic and thermoelectric properties have also been shown. Here, we present the synthesis, structure and properties of MXenes, as well as their energy storage and related applications, and an outlook for future research.« less
  • MXenes are a rapidly growing class of 2D transition metal carbides and nitrides, finding applications in fields ranging from energy storage to electromagnetic interference shielding and transparent conductive coatings. However, while more than 20 carbide MXenes have already been synthesized, Ti 4N 3 and Ti 2N are the only nitride MXenes reported so far. Here by ammoniation of Mo 2CT x and V 2CT x MXenes at 600 °C, we report on their transformation to 2D metal nitrides. Carbon atoms in the precursor MXenes are replaced with N atoms, resulting from the decomposition of ammonia molecules. The crystal structures ofmore » the resulting Mo 2N and V 2N were determined with transmission electron microscopy and X-ray pair distribution function analysis. Our results indicate that Mo 2N retains the MXene structure and V 2C transforms to a mixed layered structure of trigonal V 2N and cubic VN. Temperature-dependent resistivity measurements of the nitrides reveal that they exhibit metallic conductivity, as opposed to semiconductor-like behavior of their parent carbides. As important, room-temperature electrical conductivity values of Mo2N and V2N are three and one order of magnitude larger than those of the Mo 2CT x and V 2CT x precursors, respectively. In conclusion, this study shows how gas treatment synthesis such as ammoniation can transform carbide MXenes into 2D nitrides with higher electrical conductivities and metallic behavior, opening a new avenue in 2D materials synthesis.« less
  • Control of the electronic properties of 2D transition material carbides by replacing the outer Ti layers in Ti 3C 2T xwith Mo, creating Mo 2TiC 2T x.