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Title: Next-Generation Lithium Metal Anode Engineering via Atomic Layer Deposition

Abstract

Lithium metal is considered to be the most promising anode for next-generation batteries due to its high energy density of 3840 mAh g–1. However, the extreme reactivity of the Li surface can induce parasitic reactions with solvents, contamination, and shuttled active species in the electrolyte, reducing the performance of batteries employing Li metal anodes. One promising solution to this issue is application of thin chemical protection layers to the Li metal surface. Using a custom-made ultrahigh vacuum integrated deposition and characterization system, we demonstrate atomic layer deposition (ALD) of protection layers directly on Li metal with exquisite thickness control. We demonstrate as a proof-of-concept that a 14 nm thick ALD Al2O3 layer can protect the Li surface from corrosion due to atmosphere, sulfur, and electrolyte exposure. Using Li–S battery cells as a test system, we demonstrate an improved capacity retention using ALD-protected anodes over cells assembled with bare Li metal anodes for up to 100 cycles.

Authors:
 [1];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [1]
  1. Department of Materials Science &, Engineering, ‡Institute for Systems Research, and §Department of Chemistry, University of Maryland College Park, Maryland 20742, United States
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Energy Frontier Research Centers (EFRC) (United States). Nanostructures for Electrical Energy Storage (NEES)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Basic Energy Sciences (BES) (SC-22)
OSTI Identifier:
1386080
DOE Contract Number:  
SC0001160
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Journal Name:
ACS Nano
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 9; Journal Issue: 6; Related Information: NEES partners with University of Maryland (lead); University of California, Irvine; University of Florida; Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sandia National Laboratories; Yale University; Journal ID: ISSN 1936-0851
Publisher:
American Chemical Society (ACS)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; 37 INORGANIC, ORGANIC, PHYSICAL, AND ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY; bio-inspired, energy storage (including batteries and capacitors), defects, charge transport, synthesis (novel materials), synthesis (self-assembly), synthesis (scalable processing)

Citation Formats

Kozen, Alexander C., Lin, Chuan-Fu, Pearse, Alexander J., Schroeder, Marshall A., Han, Xiaogang, Hu, Liangbing, Lee, Sang-Bok, Rubloff, Gary W., and Noked, Malachi. Next-Generation Lithium Metal Anode Engineering via Atomic Layer Deposition. United States: N. p., 2015. Web. doi:10.1021/acsnano.5b02166.
Kozen, Alexander C., Lin, Chuan-Fu, Pearse, Alexander J., Schroeder, Marshall A., Han, Xiaogang, Hu, Liangbing, Lee, Sang-Bok, Rubloff, Gary W., & Noked, Malachi. Next-Generation Lithium Metal Anode Engineering via Atomic Layer Deposition. United States. doi:10.1021/acsnano.5b02166.
Kozen, Alexander C., Lin, Chuan-Fu, Pearse, Alexander J., Schroeder, Marshall A., Han, Xiaogang, Hu, Liangbing, Lee, Sang-Bok, Rubloff, Gary W., and Noked, Malachi. Thu . "Next-Generation Lithium Metal Anode Engineering via Atomic Layer Deposition". United States. doi:10.1021/acsnano.5b02166.
@article{osti_1386080,
title = {Next-Generation Lithium Metal Anode Engineering via Atomic Layer Deposition},
author = {Kozen, Alexander C. and Lin, Chuan-Fu and Pearse, Alexander J. and Schroeder, Marshall A. and Han, Xiaogang and Hu, Liangbing and Lee, Sang-Bok and Rubloff, Gary W. and Noked, Malachi},
abstractNote = {Lithium metal is considered to be the most promising anode for next-generation batteries due to its high energy density of 3840 mAh g–1. However, the extreme reactivity of the Li surface can induce parasitic reactions with solvents, contamination, and shuttled active species in the electrolyte, reducing the performance of batteries employing Li metal anodes. One promising solution to this issue is application of thin chemical protection layers to the Li metal surface. Using a custom-made ultrahigh vacuum integrated deposition and characterization system, we demonstrate atomic layer deposition (ALD) of protection layers directly on Li metal with exquisite thickness control. We demonstrate as a proof-of-concept that a 14 nm thick ALD Al2O3 layer can protect the Li surface from corrosion due to atmosphere, sulfur, and electrolyte exposure. Using Li–S battery cells as a test system, we demonstrate an improved capacity retention using ALD-protected anodes over cells assembled with bare Li metal anodes for up to 100 cycles.},
doi = {10.1021/acsnano.5b02166},
journal = {ACS Nano},
issn = {1936-0851},
number = 6,
volume = 9,
place = {United States},
year = {2015},
month = {5}
}