skip to main content
OSTI.GOV title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: Electrophilic, Ambiphilic, and Nucleophilic C-H Bond Activation: Understanding the Electronic Continuum of C-H Bond Activation Through Transition-State and Reaction Pathway Interaction Energy Decompositions

Abstract

The potential energy and interaction energy profiles for metal- and metal-ligand-mediated alkane C-H bond activation were explored using B3LYP density functional theory (DFT) and the absolutely localized molecular orbital energy decomposition analysis (ALMO-EDA). The set of complexes explored range from late transition metal group 10 (Pt and Pd) and group 11 (Au) metal centers to group 7-9 (Ir, Rh, Ru, and W) metal centers as well as a group 3 Sc complex. The coordination geometries, electron metal count (d8, d6, d4, and d0), and ligands (N-heterocycles, O-donor, phosphine, and Cp*) are also diverse. Quantitative analysis using ALMO-EDA of both directions of charge-transfer stabilization (occupied to unoccupied orbital stabilization) energies between the metal-ligand fragment and the coordinated C-H bond in the transition state for cleavage of the C-H bond allows classification of C-H activation reactions as electrophilic, ambiphilic, or nucleophilic on the basis of the net direction of charge-transfer energy stabilization. This bonding pattern transcends any specific mechanistic or bonding paradigm, such as oxidative addition, σ-bond metathesis, or substitution. Late transition metals such as Au(III), Pt(II), Pd(II), and Rh(III) metal centers with N-heterocycle, halide, or O-donor ligands show electrophilically dominated reaction profiles with forward charge-transfer from the C-H bond to themore » metal, leading to more stabilization than reverse charge transfer from the metal to the C-H bond. Transition states and reaction profiles for d6 Ru(II) and Ir(III) metals with Tp and acac ligands were found to have nearly equal forward and reverse charge-transfer energy stabilization. This ambiphilic region also includes the classically labeled electrophilic cationic species Cp*(PMe3)Ir(Me). Nucleophilic character, where the metal to C-H bond charge-transfer interaction is most stabilizing, was found in metathesis reactions with W(II) and Sc(III) metal center complexes in reactions as well as late transition metal Ir(I) and Rh(I) pincer complexes that undergo C-H bond insertion. Comparison of pincer ligands shows that the PCP ligand imparts more nucleophilic character to an Ir metal center than a deprotonated PNP ligand. The PCP and POCOP ligands do not show a substantial difference in the electronics of C-H activation. It was also found that Rh(I) is substantially more nucleophilic than Ir(I). Lastly, as a qualitative approximation, investigation of transition-state fragment orbital energies showed that relative frontier orbital energy gaps correctly reflect electrophilic, ambiphilic, or nucleophilic charge-transfer stabilization patterns.« less

Authors:
; ;
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Energy Frontier Research Centers (EFRC) (United States). Center for Catalytic Hydrocarbon Functionalization (CCHF)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Basic Energy Sciences (BES) (SC-22)
OSTI Identifier:
1382120
DOE Contract Number:  
SC0001298
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Journal Name:
Organometallics
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 29; Journal Issue: 23; Related Information: CCHF partners with University of Virginia (lead); Brigham Young University; California Institute of Technology; Colorado School of Mines; University of Maryland; University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill; University of North Texas; Princeton University; The Scripps Research Institute; Yale University; Journal ID: ISSN 0276-7333
Publisher:
American Chemical Society
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
37 INORGANIC, ORGANIC, PHYSICAL, AND ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY; catalysis (homogeneous); catalysis (heterogeneous); bio-inspired; hydrogen and fuel cells; materials and chemistry by design; synthesis (novel materials)

Citation Formats

Ess, Daniel H., Goddard, William A., and Periana, Roy A. Electrophilic, Ambiphilic, and Nucleophilic C-H Bond Activation: Understanding the Electronic Continuum of C-H Bond Activation Through Transition-State and Reaction Pathway Interaction Energy Decompositions. United States: N. p., 2010. Web. doi:10.1021/om100879y.
Ess, Daniel H., Goddard, William A., & Periana, Roy A. Electrophilic, Ambiphilic, and Nucleophilic C-H Bond Activation: Understanding the Electronic Continuum of C-H Bond Activation Through Transition-State and Reaction Pathway Interaction Energy Decompositions. United States. doi:10.1021/om100879y.
Ess, Daniel H., Goddard, William A., and Periana, Roy A. Mon . "Electrophilic, Ambiphilic, and Nucleophilic C-H Bond Activation: Understanding the Electronic Continuum of C-H Bond Activation Through Transition-State and Reaction Pathway Interaction Energy Decompositions". United States. doi:10.1021/om100879y.
@article{osti_1382120,
title = {Electrophilic, Ambiphilic, and Nucleophilic C-H Bond Activation: Understanding the Electronic Continuum of C-H Bond Activation Through Transition-State and Reaction Pathway Interaction Energy Decompositions},
author = {Ess, Daniel H. and Goddard, William A. and Periana, Roy A.},
abstractNote = {The potential energy and interaction energy profiles for metal- and metal-ligand-mediated alkane C-H bond activation were explored using B3LYP density functional theory (DFT) and the absolutely localized molecular orbital energy decomposition analysis (ALMO-EDA). The set of complexes explored range from late transition metal group 10 (Pt and Pd) and group 11 (Au) metal centers to group 7-9 (Ir, Rh, Ru, and W) metal centers as well as a group 3 Sc complex. The coordination geometries, electron metal count (d8, d6, d4, and d0), and ligands (N-heterocycles, O-donor, phosphine, and Cp*) are also diverse. Quantitative analysis using ALMO-EDA of both directions of charge-transfer stabilization (occupied to unoccupied orbital stabilization) energies between the metal-ligand fragment and the coordinated C-H bond in the transition state for cleavage of the C-H bond allows classification of C-H activation reactions as electrophilic, ambiphilic, or nucleophilic on the basis of the net direction of charge-transfer energy stabilization. This bonding pattern transcends any specific mechanistic or bonding paradigm, such as oxidative addition, σ-bond metathesis, or substitution. Late transition metals such as Au(III), Pt(II), Pd(II), and Rh(III) metal centers with N-heterocycle, halide, or O-donor ligands show electrophilically dominated reaction profiles with forward charge-transfer from the C-H bond to the metal, leading to more stabilization than reverse charge transfer from the metal to the C-H bond. Transition states and reaction profiles for d6 Ru(II) and Ir(III) metals with Tp and acac ligands were found to have nearly equal forward and reverse charge-transfer energy stabilization. This ambiphilic region also includes the classically labeled electrophilic cationic species Cp*(PMe3)Ir(Me). Nucleophilic character, where the metal to C-H bond charge-transfer interaction is most stabilizing, was found in metathesis reactions with W(II) and Sc(III) metal center complexes in reactions as well as late transition metal Ir(I) and Rh(I) pincer complexes that undergo C-H bond insertion. Comparison of pincer ligands shows that the PCP ligand imparts more nucleophilic character to an Ir metal center than a deprotonated PNP ligand. The PCP and POCOP ligands do not show a substantial difference in the electronics of C-H activation. It was also found that Rh(I) is substantially more nucleophilic than Ir(I). Lastly, as a qualitative approximation, investigation of transition-state fragment orbital energies showed that relative frontier orbital energy gaps correctly reflect electrophilic, ambiphilic, or nucleophilic charge-transfer stabilization patterns.},
doi = {10.1021/om100879y},
journal = {Organometallics},
issn = {0276-7333},
number = 23,
volume = 29,
place = {United States},
year = {2010},
month = {12}
}