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Title: Bose-Einstein-condensed scalar field dark matter and the gravitational wave background from inflation: New cosmological constraints and its detectability by LIGO

Authors:
; ;
Publication Date:
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
OSTI Identifier:
1380068
Grant/Contract Number:
FG02-95ER40899; SC0007859
Resource Type:
Journal Article: Publisher's Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Physical Review D
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 96; Journal Issue: 6; Related Information: CHORUS Timestamp: 2017-09-08 14:36:03; Journal ID: ISSN 2470-0010
Publisher:
American Physical Society
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English

Citation Formats

Li, Bohua, Shapiro, Paul R., and Rindler-Daller, Tanja. Bose-Einstein-condensed scalar field dark matter and the gravitational wave background from inflation: New cosmological constraints and its detectability by LIGO. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.1103/PhysRevD.96.063505.
Li, Bohua, Shapiro, Paul R., & Rindler-Daller, Tanja. Bose-Einstein-condensed scalar field dark matter and the gravitational wave background from inflation: New cosmological constraints and its detectability by LIGO. United States. doi:10.1103/PhysRevD.96.063505.
Li, Bohua, Shapiro, Paul R., and Rindler-Daller, Tanja. 2017. "Bose-Einstein-condensed scalar field dark matter and the gravitational wave background from inflation: New cosmological constraints and its detectability by LIGO". United States. doi:10.1103/PhysRevD.96.063505.
@article{osti_1380068,
title = {Bose-Einstein-condensed scalar field dark matter and the gravitational wave background from inflation: New cosmological constraints and its detectability by LIGO},
author = {Li, Bohua and Shapiro, Paul R. and Rindler-Daller, Tanja},
abstractNote = {},
doi = {10.1103/PhysRevD.96.063505},
journal = {Physical Review D},
number = 6,
volume = 96,
place = {United States},
year = 2017,
month = 9
}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
This content will become publicly available on September 8, 2018
Publisher's Accepted Manuscript

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  • We review the properties of astrophysical and cosmological relevance that may arise from the bosonic nature of scalar field dark matter models. The key property is the formation of Bose-Einstein condensates, but we also consider the presence of non-empty excited states that may be relevant for the description of scalar field galaxy halos and the properties of rotation curves.
  • Standard thermodynamical results of ideal Bose gases are used to study the possible formation of a cosmological Bose-Einstein condensate in Scalar Field Dark Matter models; the main hypothesis is that the boson particles were in thermal equilibrium in the early Universe. It is then shown that the only relevant case needs the presence of both particles and anti-particles, and that it corresponds to models in which the bosonic particle is very light. Contrary to common wisdom, the condensate should be a relativistic phenomenon. Some cosmological implications are discussed in turn.
  • High-precision data from observation of the cosmic microwave background and the large scale structure of the universe provide very tight constraints on the effective parameters that describe cosmological inflation. Indeed, within a constrained class of {lambda}CDM models, the simple {lambda}{phi}{sup 4} chaotic inflation model already appears to be ruled out by cosmological data. In this paper, we compute constraints on inflationary parameters within a more general framework that includes other physically motivated parameters such as a nonzero neutrino mass. We find that a strong degeneracy between the tensor-to-scalar ratio r and the neutrino mass prevents {lambda}{phi}{sup 4} from being excludedmore » by present data. Reversing the argument, if {lambda}{phi}{sup 4} is the correct model of inflation, it predicts a sum of neutrino masses at 0.3{yields}0.5 eV, a range compatible with present experimental limits and within the reach of the next generation of neutrino mass measurements. We also discuss the associated constraints on the dark matter density, the dark energy equation of state, and spatial curvature, and show that the allowed regions are significantly altered. Importantly, we find an allowed range of 0.094<{omega}{sub c}h{sup 2}<0.136 for the dark matter density, a factor of 2 larger than that reported in previous studies. This expanded parameter space may have implications for constraints on SUSY dark matter models.« less
  • The current knowledge of cosmological structure formation suggests that Cold Dark Matter (CDM) halos possess a nonspherical density profile, implying that cosmic structures can be potential sources of gravitational waves via power transfer from scalar perturbations to tensor metric modes in the nonlinear regime. By means of a previously developed mathematical formalism and a triaxial collapse model, we numerically estimate the stochastic gravitational-wave background generated by CDM halos during the fully nonlinear stage of their evolution. Our results suggest that the energy density associated with this background is comparable to that produced by primordial tensor modes at frequencies {nu}{approx_equal}10{sup -18}-10{supmore » -17} Hz if the energy scale of inflation is V{sup 1/4}{approx_equal}1-2x10{sup 15} GeV, and that these gravitational waves could give rise to several cosmological effects, including secondary CMB anisotropy and polarization.« less
  • Once the critical temperature of a cosmological boson gas is less than the critical temperature, a Bose-Einstein Condensation process can always take place during the cosmic history of the universe. Zero temperature condensed dark matter can be described as a non-relativistic, Newtonian gravitational condensate, whose density and pressure are related by a barotropic equation of state, with barotropic index equal to one. In the present paper we analyze the effects of the finite dark matter temperature on the properties of the dark matter halos. We formulate the basic equations describing the finite temperature condensate, representing a generalized Gross-Pitaevskii equation thatmore » takes into account the presence of the thermal cloud. The static condensate and thermal cloud in thermodynamic equilibrium is analyzed in detail, by using the Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov and Thomas-Fermi approximations. The condensed dark matter and thermal cloud density and mass profiles at finite temperatures are explicitly obtained. Our results show that when the temperature of the condensate and of the thermal cloud are much smaller than the critical Bose-Einstein transition temperature, the zero temperature density and mass profiles give an excellent description of the dark matter halos. However, finite temperature effects may play an important role in the early stages of the cosmological evolution of the dark matter condensates.« less