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Title: Determination of glycoside hydrolase specificities during hydrolysis of plant cell walls using glycome profiling

Abstract

Glycoside hydrolases (GHs) are enzymes that hydrolyze polysaccharides into simple sugars. To better understand the specificity of enzyme hydrolysis within the complex matrix of polysaccharides found in the plant cell wall, we studied the reactions of individual enzymes using glycome profiling, where a comprehensive collection of cell wall glycan-directed monoclonal antibodies are used to detect polysaccharide epitopes remaining in the walls after enzyme treatment and quantitative nanostructure initiator mass spectrometry (oxime-NIMS) to determine soluble sugar products of their reactions. Single, purified enzymes from the GH5_4, GH10, and GH11 families of glycoside hydrolases hydrolyzed hemicelluloses as evidenced by the loss of specific epitopes from the glycome profiles in enzyme-treated plant biomass. The glycome profiling data were further substantiated by oxime-NIMS, which identified hexose products from hydrolysis of cellulose, and pentose-only and mixed hexose-pentose products from the hydrolysis of hemicelluloses. The GH10 enzyme proved to be reactive with the broadest diversity of xylose-backbone polysaccharide epitopes, but was incapable of reacting with glucose-backbone polysaccharides. In contrast, the GH5 and GH11 enzymes studied here showed the ability to react with both glucose- and xylose-backbone polysaccharides. The identification of enzyme specificity for a wide diversity of polysaccharide structures provided by glycome profiling, and the correlatedmore » identification of soluble oligosaccharide hydrolysis products provided by oxime-NIMS, offers a unique combination to understand the hydrolytic capabilities and constraints of individual enzymes as they interact with plant biomass.« less

Authors:
 [1];  [2];  [1];  [1];  [3];  [4];  [5];  [4];  [1]
  1. Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)
  2. Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)
  3. US Dept. of Energy Joint Bioenergy Institute, Emeryville, CA (United States); Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States)
  4. Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Univ. of Georgia, Athens, GA (United States)
  5. US Dept. of Energy Joint Bioenergy Institute, Emeryville, CA (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Biological and Environmental Research (BER) (SC-23)
OSTI Identifier:
1379937
Grant/Contract Number:
AC02-05CH11231
Resource Type:
Journal Article: Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Biotechnology for Biofuels
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 10; Journal Issue: 1; Journal ID: ISSN 1754-6834
Publisher:
BioMed Central
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
09 BIOMASS FUELS; Glycoside hydrolase; Xylanase; Xyloglucanase; Glycome profiling; Nanostructure-initiator mass spectrometry; Enzyme specificity

Citation Formats

Walker, Johnnie A., Pattathil, Sivakumar, Bergeman, Lai F., Beebe, Emily T., Deng, Kai, Mirzai, Maryam, Northen, Trent R., Hahn, Michael G., and Fox, Brian G. Determination of glycoside hydrolase specificities during hydrolysis of plant cell walls using glycome profiling. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.1186/s13068-017-0703-6.
Walker, Johnnie A., Pattathil, Sivakumar, Bergeman, Lai F., Beebe, Emily T., Deng, Kai, Mirzai, Maryam, Northen, Trent R., Hahn, Michael G., & Fox, Brian G. Determination of glycoside hydrolase specificities during hydrolysis of plant cell walls using glycome profiling. United States. doi:10.1186/s13068-017-0703-6.
Walker, Johnnie A., Pattathil, Sivakumar, Bergeman, Lai F., Beebe, Emily T., Deng, Kai, Mirzai, Maryam, Northen, Trent R., Hahn, Michael G., and Fox, Brian G. Thu . "Determination of glycoside hydrolase specificities during hydrolysis of plant cell walls using glycome profiling". United States. doi:10.1186/s13068-017-0703-6. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1379937.
@article{osti_1379937,
title = {Determination of glycoside hydrolase specificities during hydrolysis of plant cell walls using glycome profiling},
author = {Walker, Johnnie A. and Pattathil, Sivakumar and Bergeman, Lai F. and Beebe, Emily T. and Deng, Kai and Mirzai, Maryam and Northen, Trent R. and Hahn, Michael G. and Fox, Brian G.},
abstractNote = {Glycoside hydrolases (GHs) are enzymes that hydrolyze polysaccharides into simple sugars. To better understand the specificity of enzyme hydrolysis within the complex matrix of polysaccharides found in the plant cell wall, we studied the reactions of individual enzymes using glycome profiling, where a comprehensive collection of cell wall glycan-directed monoclonal antibodies are used to detect polysaccharide epitopes remaining in the walls after enzyme treatment and quantitative nanostructure initiator mass spectrometry (oxime-NIMS) to determine soluble sugar products of their reactions. Single, purified enzymes from the GH5_4, GH10, and GH11 families of glycoside hydrolases hydrolyzed hemicelluloses as evidenced by the loss of specific epitopes from the glycome profiles in enzyme-treated plant biomass. The glycome profiling data were further substantiated by oxime-NIMS, which identified hexose products from hydrolysis of cellulose, and pentose-only and mixed hexose-pentose products from the hydrolysis of hemicelluloses. The GH10 enzyme proved to be reactive with the broadest diversity of xylose-backbone polysaccharide epitopes, but was incapable of reacting with glucose-backbone polysaccharides. In contrast, the GH5 and GH11 enzymes studied here showed the ability to react with both glucose- and xylose-backbone polysaccharides. The identification of enzyme specificity for a wide diversity of polysaccharide structures provided by glycome profiling, and the correlated identification of soluble oligosaccharide hydrolysis products provided by oxime-NIMS, offers a unique combination to understand the hydrolytic capabilities and constraints of individual enzymes as they interact with plant biomass.},
doi = {10.1186/s13068-017-0703-6},
journal = {Biotechnology for Biofuels},
number = 1,
volume = 10,
place = {United States},
year = {Thu Feb 02 00:00:00 EST 2017},
month = {Thu Feb 02 00:00:00 EST 2017}
}

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Cited by: 2works
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  • Background Metabolism of carbon bound in wheat arabinoxylan (WAX) polysaccharides by bacteria requires a number of glycoside hydrolases active toward different bonds between sugars and other molecules. Alicyclobacillus acidocaldarius is a Gram-positive thermoacidophilic bacterium capable of growth on a variety of mono-, di-, oligo-, and polysaccharides. Nineteen proposed glycoside hydrolases have been annotated in the A. acidocaldarius Type Strain ATCC27009/DSM 446 genome. Results Molecular analysis using high-density oligonucleotide microarrays was performed on A. acidocaldarius strain ATCC27009 when growing on WAX. When a culture growing exponentially at the expense of arabinoxylan saccharides was challenged with glucose or xylose, most glycoside hydrolasesmore » were down-regulated. Interestingly, regulation was more intense when xylose was added to the culture than when glucose was added, a clear departure from classical carbon catabolite repression demonstrated by many Gram-positive bacteria. In silico analyses of the regulated glycoside hydrolases, along with the results from the microarray analyses, yielded a potential mechanism for arabinoxylan metabolism by A. acidocaldarius. Glycoside hydrolases expressed by this strain may have broad substrate specificity, and initial hydrolysis is catalyzed by an extracellular xylanase, while subsequent steps are likely performed inside the growing cell. Conclusions Glycoside hydrolases, for the most part, appear to be found in clusters, throughout the A. acidocaldarius genome. Not all of the glycoside hydrolase genes found at loci within these clusters were regulated during the experiment, indicating that a specific subset of the 19 glycoside hydrolase genes found in A. acidocaldarius were used during metabolism of WAX. While specific functions of the glycoside hydrolases was not tested as part of the research discussed, many of the glycoside hydrolases found in the A. acidocaldarius Type Strain appear to have a broader substrate range than represented by the glycoside hydrolase family in which the enzymes were categorized.« less
  • Metabolism of carbon bound in wheat arabinoxylan (WAX) polysaccharides by bacteria requires a number of glycoside hydrolases active toward different bonds between sugars and other molecules. Alicyclobacillus acidocaldarius is a Gram-positive thermoacidophilic bacterium capable of growth on a variety of mono-, di-, oligo-, and polysaccharides. Nineteen proposed glycoside hydrolases have been annotated in the A. acidocaldarius Type Strain ATCC27009/DSM 446 genome. Here, experiments were performed to understand the effect of monosaccharides on gene expression during growth on the polysaccharide, WAX.
  • ABSTRACT Glycoside hydrolases (GHs) are key enzymes in the depolymerization of plant-derived cellulose, a process central to the global carbon cycle and the conversion of plant biomass to fuels and chemicals. A limited number of GH families hydrolyze crystalline cellulose, often by a processive mechanism along the cellulose chain. During cultivation of thermophilic cellulolytic microbial communities, substantial differences were observed in the crystalline cellulose saccharification activities of supernatants recovered from divergent lineages. Comparative community proteomics identified a set of cellulases from a population closely related to actinobacteriumThermobispora bisporathat were highly abundant in the most active consortium. Among the cellulases fromT. bispora,more » the abundance of a GH family 12 (GH12) protein correlated most closely with the changes in crystalline cellulose hydrolysis activity. This result was surprising since GH12 proteins have been predominantly characterized as enzymes active on soluble polysaccharide substrates. Heterologous expression and biochemical characterization of the suite ofT. bisporahydrolytic cellulases confirmed that the GH12 protein possessed the highest activity on multiple crystalline cellulose substrates and demonstrated that it hydrolyzes cellulose chains by a predominantly random mechanism. This work suggests that the role of GH12 proteins in crystalline cellulose hydrolysis by cellulolytic microbes should be reconsidered. IMPORTANCECellulose is the most abundant organic polymer on earth, and its enzymatic hydrolysis is a key reaction in the global carbon cycle and the conversion of plant biomass to biofuels. The glycoside hydrolases that depolymerize crystalline cellulose have been primarily characterized from isolates. In this study, we demonstrate that adapting microbial consortia from compost to grow on crystalline cellulose generated communities whose soluble enzymes exhibit differential abilities to hydrolyze crystalline cellulose. Comparative proteomics of these communities identified a protein of glycoside hydrolase family 12 (GH12), a family of proteins previously observed to primarily hydrolyze soluble substrates, as a candidate that accounted for some of the differences in hydrolytic activities. Heterologous expression confirmed that the GH12 protein identified by proteomics was active on crystalline cellulose and hydrolyzed cellulose by a random mechanism, in contrast to most cellulases that act on the crystalline polymer in a processive mechanism.« less
  • Glycoside hydrolases (GHs) are key enzymes in the depolymerization of plant-derived cellulose, a process central to the global carbon cycle and the conversion of plant biomass to fuels and chemicals. A limited number of GH families hydrolyze crystalline cellulose, often by a processive mechanism along the cellulose chain. During cultivation of thermophilic cellulolytic microbial communities, substantial differences were observed in the crystalline cellulose saccharification activities of supernatants recovered from divergent lineages. Comparative community proteomics identified a set of cellulases from a population closely related to actinobacterium Thermobispora bispora that were highly abundant in the most active consortium. Among the cellulasesmore » from T. bispora, the abundance of a GH family 12 (GH12) protein correlated most closely with the changes in crystalline cellulose hydrolysis activity. This result was surprising since GH12 proteins have been predominantly characterized as enzymes active on soluble polysaccharide substrates. Heterologous expression and biochemical characterization of the suite of T. bispora hydrolytic cellulases confirmed that the GH12 protein possessed the highest activity on multiple crystalline cellulose substrates and demonstrated that it hydrolyzes cellulose chains by a predominantly random mechanism. This work suggests that the role of GH12 proteins in crystalline cellulose hydrolysis by cellulolytic microbes should be reconsidered.« less
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