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Title: iPTF16geu: A multiply imaged, gravitationally lensed type Ia supernova

Abstract

We report the discovery of a multiply imaged, gravitationally lensed type Ia supernova, iPTF16geu (SN 2016geu), at redshift z = 0.409. This phenomenon was identified because the light from the stellar explosion was magnified more than 50 times by the curvature of space around matter in an intervening galaxy.We used high-spatial-resolution observations to resolve four images of the lensed supernova, approximately 0.3 arc seconds from the center of the foreground galaxy. The observations probe a physical scale of ~1 kiloparsec, smaller than is typical in other studies of extragalactic gravitational lensing. The large magnification and symmetric image configuration imply close alignment between the lines of sight to the supernova and to the lens. In conclusion, the relative magnifications of the four images provide evidence for substructures in the lensing galaxy.

Authors:
ORCiD logo [1]; ORCiD logo [1]; ORCiD logo [2]; ORCiD logo [3];  [4]; ORCiD logo [2]; ORCiD logo [5]; ORCiD logo [1];  [6]; ORCiD logo [2]; ORCiD logo [7];  [8]; ORCiD logo [9]; ORCiD logo [1];  [10]; ORCiD logo [1];  [2];  [2]; ORCiD logo [11];  [12] more »; ORCiD logo [13];  [9]; ORCiD logo [2];  [4]; ORCiD logo [1]; ORCiD logo [1]; ORCiD logo [2]; ORCiD logo [10]; ORCiD logo [14];  [10]; ORCiD logo [2]; ORCiD logo [9];  [2]; ORCiD logo [4] « less
  1. Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Oskar Klein Centre, Dept. of Physics
  2. California Inst. of Technology (CalTech), Pasadena, CA (United States). Cahill Center for Astrophysics
  3. Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Astronomy; Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)
  4. Weizmann Inst. of Science, Rehovot (Israel). Dept. of Particle Physics and Astrophysics
  5. Space Telescope Science Inst., Baltimore, MD (United States)
  6. San Diego State Univ., San Diego, CA (United States). Dept. of Astronomy; Univ. of Tokyo, Kashiwa (Japan). Kavli IPMU (WPI), UTIAS
  7. Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Astronomy
  8. eScience Inst. and Dept. of Astronomy, Seattle, WA (United States)
  9. Univ. of California, Irvine, CA (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy
  10. Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Oskar Klein Centre, Astronomy Dept.
  11. California Inst. of Technology (CalTech), Pasadena, CA (United States). Cahill Center for Astrophysics; Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Astronomy
  12. California Inst. of Technology (CalTech), Pasadena, CA (United States). Infrared Processing and Analysis Center
  13. Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States). Center for Interdisciplinary Exploration and Research in Astrophysics (CIERA) and Dept. of Physics and Astronomy; Adler Planetarium, Chicago, IL (United States)
  14. Univ. of Southampton (United Kingdom). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Advanced Scientific Computing Research (ASCR) (SC-21)
OSTI Identifier:
1379815
Grant/Contract Number:
AC02-05CH11231; 615929; 1545949; HST-GO-14862.002
Resource Type:
Journal Article: Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Science
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 356; Journal Issue: 6335; Journal ID: ISSN 0036-8075
Publisher:
AAAS
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
79 ASTRONOMY AND ASTROPHYSICS

Citation Formats

Goobar, A., Amanullah, R., Kulkarni, S. R., Nugent, P. E., Johansson, J., Steidel, C., Law, D., Mörtsell, E., Quimby, R., Blagorodnova, N., Brandeker, A., Cao, Y., Cooray, A., Ferretti, R., Fremling, C., Hangard, L., Kasliwal, M., Kupfer, T., Lunnan, R., Masci, F., Miller, A. A., Nayyeri, H., Neill, J. D., Ofek, E. O., Papadogiannakis, S., Petrushevska, T., Ravi, V., Sollerman, J., Sullivan, M., Taddia, F., Walters, R., Wilson, D., Yan, L., and Yaron, O. iPTF16geu: A multiply imaged, gravitationally lensed type Ia supernova. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.1126/science.aal2729.
Goobar, A., Amanullah, R., Kulkarni, S. R., Nugent, P. E., Johansson, J., Steidel, C., Law, D., Mörtsell, E., Quimby, R., Blagorodnova, N., Brandeker, A., Cao, Y., Cooray, A., Ferretti, R., Fremling, C., Hangard, L., Kasliwal, M., Kupfer, T., Lunnan, R., Masci, F., Miller, A. A., Nayyeri, H., Neill, J. D., Ofek, E. O., Papadogiannakis, S., Petrushevska, T., Ravi, V., Sollerman, J., Sullivan, M., Taddia, F., Walters, R., Wilson, D., Yan, L., & Yaron, O. iPTF16geu: A multiply imaged, gravitationally lensed type Ia supernova. United States. doi:10.1126/science.aal2729.
Goobar, A., Amanullah, R., Kulkarni, S. R., Nugent, P. E., Johansson, J., Steidel, C., Law, D., Mörtsell, E., Quimby, R., Blagorodnova, N., Brandeker, A., Cao, Y., Cooray, A., Ferretti, R., Fremling, C., Hangard, L., Kasliwal, M., Kupfer, T., Lunnan, R., Masci, F., Miller, A. A., Nayyeri, H., Neill, J. D., Ofek, E. O., Papadogiannakis, S., Petrushevska, T., Ravi, V., Sollerman, J., Sullivan, M., Taddia, F., Walters, R., Wilson, D., Yan, L., and Yaron, O. Fri . "iPTF16geu: A multiply imaged, gravitationally lensed type Ia supernova". United States. doi:10.1126/science.aal2729. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1379815.
@article{osti_1379815,
title = {iPTF16geu: A multiply imaged, gravitationally lensed type Ia supernova},
author = {Goobar, A. and Amanullah, R. and Kulkarni, S. R. and Nugent, P. E. and Johansson, J. and Steidel, C. and Law, D. and Mörtsell, E. and Quimby, R. and Blagorodnova, N. and Brandeker, A. and Cao, Y. and Cooray, A. and Ferretti, R. and Fremling, C. and Hangard, L. and Kasliwal, M. and Kupfer, T. and Lunnan, R. and Masci, F. and Miller, A. A. and Nayyeri, H. and Neill, J. D. and Ofek, E. O. and Papadogiannakis, S. and Petrushevska, T. and Ravi, V. and Sollerman, J. and Sullivan, M. and Taddia, F. and Walters, R. and Wilson, D. and Yan, L. and Yaron, O.},
abstractNote = {We report the discovery of a multiply imaged, gravitationally lensed type Ia supernova, iPTF16geu (SN 2016geu), at redshift z = 0.409. This phenomenon was identified because the light from the stellar explosion was magnified more than 50 times by the curvature of space around matter in an intervening galaxy.We used high-spatial-resolution observations to resolve four images of the lensed supernova, approximately 0.3 arc seconds from the center of the foreground galaxy. The observations probe a physical scale of ~1 kiloparsec, smaller than is typical in other studies of extragalactic gravitational lensing. The large magnification and symmetric image configuration imply close alignment between the lines of sight to the supernova and to the lens. In conclusion, the relative magnifications of the four images provide evidence for substructures in the lensing galaxy.},
doi = {10.1126/science.aal2729},
journal = {Science},
number = 6335,
volume = 356,
place = {United States},
year = {Fri Apr 21 00:00:00 EDT 2017},
month = {Fri Apr 21 00:00:00 EDT 2017}
}

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Cited by: 10works
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  • Using the Subaru 8.2 m Telescope with the IRCS Echelle spectrograph, we obtained high-resolution (R = 10,000) near-infrared (1.01-1.38 {mu}m) spectra of images A and B of the gravitationally lensed QSO B1422+231 (z = 3.628) consisting of four known lensed images. We detected Mg II absorption lines at z = 3.54, which show a large variance of column densities ({approx}0.3 dex) and velocities ({approx}10 km s{sup -1}) between sightlines A and B with a projected separation of only 8.4h{sup -1}{sub 70} pc at that redshift. This is the smallest spatial structure of the high-z gas clouds ever detected after Rauchmore » et al. found a 20 pc scale structure for the same z = 3.54 absorption system using optical spectra of images A and C. The observed systematic variances imply that the system is an expanding shell as originally suggested by Rauch et al. By combining the data for three sightlines, we managed to constrain the radius and expansion velocity of the shell ({approx}50-100 pc, 130 km s{sup -1}), concluding that the shell is truly a supernova remnant (SNR) rather than other types of shell objects, such as a giant H II region. We also detected strong Fe II absorption lines for this system, but with much broader Doppler width than that of {alpha}-element lines. We suggest that this Fe II absorption line originates in a localized Fe II-rich gas cloud that is not completely mixed with plowed ambient interstellar gas clouds showing other {alpha}-element low-ion absorption lines. Along with the Fe richness, we conclude that the SNR is produced by an SN Ia explosion.« less
  • Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) that are multiply imaged by gravitational lensing can extend the SN Ia Hubble diagram to very high redshifts ( z ≳ 2), probe potential SN Ia evolution, and deliver high-precision constraints on H {sub 0}, w , and Ω{sub m} via time delays. However, only one, iPTF16geu, has been found to date, and many more are needed to achieve these goals. To increase the multiply imaged SN Ia discovery rate, we present a simple algorithm for identifying gravitationally lensed SN Ia candidates in cadenced, wide-field optical imaging surveys. The technique is to look for supernovaemore » that appear to be hosted by elliptical galaxies, but that have absolute magnitudes implied by the apparent hosts’ photometric redshifts that are far brighter than the absolute magnitudes of normal SNe Ia (the brightest type of supernovae found in elliptical galaxies). Importantly, this purely photometric method does not require the ability to resolve the lensed images for discovery. Active galactic nuclei, the primary sources of contamination that affect the method, can be controlled using catalog cross-matches and color cuts. Highly magnified core-collapse SNe will also be discovered as a byproduct of the method. Using a Monte Carlo simulation, we forecast that the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope can discover up to 500 multiply imaged SNe Ia using this technique in a 10 year z -band search, more than an order of magnitude improvement over previous estimates. We also predict that the Zwicky Transient Facility should find up to 10 multiply imaged SNe Ia using this technique in a 3 year R -band search—despite the fact that this survey will not resolve a single system.« less
  • Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) that are multiply imaged by gravitational lensing can extend the SN Ia Hubble diagram to very high redshifts (z ≳ 2), probe potential SN Ia evolution, and deliver high-precision constraints on H 0, w, and Ω m via time delays. However, only one, iPTF16geu, has been found to date, and many more are needed to achieve these goals. To increase the multiply imaged SN Ia discovery rate, we present a simple algorithm for identifying gravitationally lensed SN Ia candidates in cadenced, wide-field optical imaging surveys. The technique is to look for supernovae that appear tomore » be hosted by elliptical galaxies, but that have absolute magnitudes implied by the apparent hosts' photometric redshifts that are far brighter than the absolute magnitudes of normal SNe Ia (the brightest type of supernovae found in elliptical galaxies). Importantly, this purely photometric method does not require the ability to resolve the lensed images for discovery. Active galactic nuclei, the primary sources of contamination that affect the method, can be controlled using catalog cross-matches and color cuts. Highly magnified core-collapse SNe will also be discovered as a byproduct of the method. Using a Monte Carlo simulation, we forecast that the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope can discover up to 500 multiply imaged SNe Ia using this technique in a 10 year z-band search, more than an order of magnitude improvement over previous estimates. Finally, we also predict that the Zwicky Transient Facility should find up to 10 multiply imaged SNe Ia using this technique in a 3 year R-band search - despite the fact that this survey will not resolve a single system.« less
  • We study the initiation of the detonation in the gravitationally confined detonation (GCD) model of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia). In this model, ignition occurs at one or several off-center points, resulting in a burning bubble of hot ash that rises rapidly, breaks through the surface of the star, and collides at a point on the stellar surface opposite the breakout, producing a high-velocity inwardly directed flow. Initiation of the detonation occurs spontaneously in a region where the length scale of the temperature gradient extending from the flow (in which carbon burning is already occurring) into unburned fuel is commensuratemore » to the range of critical length scales which have been derived from one-dimensional simulations that resolve the initiation of a detonation. By increasing the maximum resolution in a truncated cone that encompasses this region, beginning somewhat before initiation of the detonation occurs, we successfully simulate in situ the first gradient-initiated detonation in a whole-star simulation. The detonation emerges when a compression wave overruns a pocket of fuel situated in a Kelvin-Helmholtz cusp at the leading edge of the inwardly directed jet of burning carbon. The compression wave preconditions the temperature in the fuel in such a way that the Zeldovich gradient mechanism can operate and a detonation ensues. We explore the dependence of the length scale of the temperature gradient on spatial resolution and discuss the implications for the robustness of this detonation mechanism. We find that the time and the location at which initiation of the detonation occurs varies with resolution. In particular, initiation of a detonation had not yet occurred in our highest resolution simulation by the time we ended the simulation because of the computational demand it required. However, it may detonate later. We suggest that the turbulent shear layer surrounding the inwardly directed jet provides the most favorable physical conditions, and therefore the most likely location, for initiation of a detonation in the GCD model.« less
  • We study the initiation of the detonation in the gravitationally confined detonation (GCD) model of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia). In this model, ignition occurs at one or several off-center points, resulting in a burning bubble of hot ash that rises rapidly, breaks through the surface of the star, and collides at a point on the stellar surface opposite the breakout, producing a high-velocity inwardly directed flow. Initiation of the detonation occurs spontaneously in a region where the length scale of the temperature gradient extending from the flow (in which carbon burning is already occurring) into unburned fuel is commensuratemore » to the range of critical length scales which have been derived from one-dimensional simulations that resolve the initiation of a detonation. By increasing the maximum resolution in a truncated cone that encompasses this region, beginning somewhat before initiation of the detonation occurs, we successfully simulate in situ the first gradient-initiated detonation in a whole-star simulation. The detonation emerges when a compression wave overruns a pocket of fuel situated in a Kelvin-Helmholtz cusp at the leading edge of the inwardly directed jet of burning carbon. The compression wave preconditions the temperature in the fuel in such a way that the Zel'dovich gradient mechanism can operate and a detonation ensues. We explore the dependence of the length scale of the temperature gradient on spatial resolution and discuss the implications for the robustness of this detonation mechanism. We find that the time and the location at which initiation of the detonation occurs varies with resolution. In particular, initiation of a detonation had not yet occurred in our highest resolution simulation by the time we ended the simulation because of the computational demand it required. However, it may detonate later. We suggest that the turbulent shear layer surrounding the inwardly directed jet provides the most favorable physical conditions, and therefore the most likely location, for initiation of a detonation in the GCD model.« less