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Title: Full-Depth Coadds of the WISE and First-Year NEOWISE-Reactivation Images

Abstract

The Near Earth Object Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (NEOWISE) Reactivation mission released data from its first full year of observations in 2015. This data set includes ~2.5 million exposures in each of W1 and W2, effectively doubling the amount of WISE imaging available at 3.4 μm and 4.6 μm relative to the AllWISE release. In this paper, we have created the first ever full-sky set of coadds combining all publicly available W1 and W2 exposures from both the AllWISE and NEOWISE-Reactivation (NEOWISER) mission phases. We employ an adaptation of the unWISE image coaddition framework, which preserves the native WISE angular resolution and is optimized for forced photometry. By incorporating two additional scans of the entire sky, we not only improve the W1/W2 depths, but also largely eliminate time-dependent artifacts such as off-axis scattered moonlight. We anticipate that our new coadds will have a broad range of applications, including target selection for upcoming spectroscopic cosmology surveys, identification of distant/massive galaxy clusters, and discovery of high-redshift quasars. In particular, our full-depth AllWISE+NEOWISER coadds will be an important input for the Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument selection of luminous red galaxy and quasar targets. Our full-depth W1/W2 coadds are already in use within themore » DECam Legacy Survey (DECaLS) and Mayall z-band Legacy Survey (MzLS) reduction pipelines. Finally, much more work still remains in order to fully leverage NEOWISER imaging for astrophysical applications beyond the solar system.« less

Authors:
 [1]; ORCiD logo [2]; ORCiD logo [3]
  1. Berkeley Center for Cosmological Physics, Berkeley, CA (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)
  2. Univ. of Toronto, ON (Canada); Univ. of Waterloo, ON (Canada)
  3. Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), High Energy Physics (HEP) (SC-25); National Science Foundation (NSF)
OSTI Identifier:
1379624
Grant/Contract Number:
AC02-05CH11231; AST-0950945
Resource Type:
Journal Article: Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Astronomical Journal (Online)
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Name: Astronomical Journal (Online); Journal Volume: 153; Journal Issue: 1; Journal ID: ISSN 1538-3881
Publisher:
IOP Publishing - AAAS
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
79 ASTRONOMY AND ASTROPHYSICS; infrared; data analysis; surveys; image processing

Citation Formats

Meisner, Aaron M., Lang, Dustin, and Schlegel, David J. Full-Depth Coadds of the WISE and First-Year NEOWISE-Reactivation Images. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.3847/1538-3881/153/1/38.
Meisner, Aaron M., Lang, Dustin, & Schlegel, David J. Full-Depth Coadds of the WISE and First-Year NEOWISE-Reactivation Images. United States. doi:10.3847/1538-3881/153/1/38.
Meisner, Aaron M., Lang, Dustin, and Schlegel, David J. Tue . "Full-Depth Coadds of the WISE and First-Year NEOWISE-Reactivation Images". United States. doi:10.3847/1538-3881/153/1/38. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1379624.
@article{osti_1379624,
title = {Full-Depth Coadds of the WISE and First-Year NEOWISE-Reactivation Images},
author = {Meisner, Aaron M. and Lang, Dustin and Schlegel, David J.},
abstractNote = {The Near Earth Object Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (NEOWISE) Reactivation mission released data from its first full year of observations in 2015. This data set includes ~2.5 million exposures in each of W1 and W2, effectively doubling the amount of WISE imaging available at 3.4 μm and 4.6 μm relative to the AllWISE release. In this paper, we have created the first ever full-sky set of coadds combining all publicly available W1 and W2 exposures from both the AllWISE and NEOWISE-Reactivation (NEOWISER) mission phases. We employ an adaptation of the unWISE image coaddition framework, which preserves the native WISE angular resolution and is optimized for forced photometry. By incorporating two additional scans of the entire sky, we not only improve the W1/W2 depths, but also largely eliminate time-dependent artifacts such as off-axis scattered moonlight. We anticipate that our new coadds will have a broad range of applications, including target selection for upcoming spectroscopic cosmology surveys, identification of distant/massive galaxy clusters, and discovery of high-redshift quasars. In particular, our full-depth AllWISE+NEOWISER coadds will be an important input for the Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument selection of luminous red galaxy and quasar targets. Our full-depth W1/W2 coadds are already in use within the DECam Legacy Survey (DECaLS) and Mayall z-band Legacy Survey (MzLS) reduction pipelines. Finally, much more work still remains in order to fully leverage NEOWISER imaging for astrophysical applications beyond the solar system.},
doi = {10.3847/1538-3881/153/1/38},
journal = {Astronomical Journal (Online)},
number = 1,
volume = 153,
place = {United States},
year = {Tue Jan 03 00:00:00 EST 2017},
month = {Tue Jan 03 00:00:00 EST 2017}
}

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Cited by: 8works
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  • The Near Earth Object Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (NEOWISE) Reactivation mission released data from its first full year of observations in 2015. This data set includes ∼2.5 million exposures in each of W1 and W2, effectively doubling the amount of WISE imaging available at 3.4 μ m and 4.6 μ m relative to the AllWISE release. We have created the first ever full-sky set of coadds combining all publicly available W1 and W2 exposures from both the AllWISE and NEOWISE-Reactivation (NEOWISER) mission phases. We employ an adaptation of the unWISE image coaddition framework, which preserves the native WISE angular resolutionmore » and is optimized for forced photometry. By incorporating two additional scans of the entire sky, we not only improve the W1/W2 depths, but also largely eliminate time-dependent artifacts such as off-axis scattered moonlight. We anticipate that our new coadds will have a broad range of applications, including target selection for upcoming spectroscopic cosmology surveys, identification of distant/massive galaxy clusters, and discovery of high-redshift quasars. In particular, our full-depth AllWISE+NEOWISER coadds will be an important input for the Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument selection of luminous red galaxy and quasar targets. Our full-depth W1/W2 coadds are already in use within the DECam Legacy Survey (DECaLS) and Mayall z-band Legacy Survey (MzLS) reduction pipelines. Much more work still remains in order to fully leverage NEOWISER imaging for astrophysical applications beyond the solar system.« less
  • We have reprocessed over 100 terabytes of single-exposure Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer ( WISE )/NEOWISE images to create the deepest ever full-sky maps at 3–5 microns. We include all publicly available W1 and W2 imaging—a total of ∼8 million exposures in each band—from ∼37 months of observations spanning 2010 January to 2015 December. Our coadds preserve the native WISE resolution and typically incorporate ∼3× more input frames than those of the AllWISE Atlas stacks. Our coadds are designed to enable deep forced photometry, in particular for the Dark Energy Camera Legacy Survey (DECaLS) and Mayall z-Band Legacy Survey (MzLS), bothmore » of which are being used to select targets for the Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument. We describe newly introduced processing steps aimed at leveraging added redundancy to remove artifacts, with the intent of facilitating uniform target selection and searches for rare/exotic objects (e.g., high-redshift quasars and distant galaxy clusters). Forced photometry depths achieved with these coadds extend 0.56 (0.46) magnitudes deeper in W1 (W2) than is possible with only pre-hibernation WISE imaging.« less
  • Here, we have reprocessed over 100 terabytes of single-exposure Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE)/NEOWISE images to create the deepest ever full-sky maps at 3-5 microns. We include all publicly available W1 and W2 imaging - a total of ~8 million exposures in each band - from ~37 months of observations spanning 2010 January to 2015 December. Our coadds preserve the native WISE resolution and typically incorporate ~3× more input frames than those of the AllWISE Atlas stacks. Our coadds are designed to enable deep forced photometry, in particular for the Dark Energy Camera Legacy Survey (DECaLS) and Mayall z-Band Legacymore » Survey (MzLS), both of which are being used to select targets for the Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument. We describe newly introduced processing steps aimed at leveraging added redundancy to remove artifacts, with the intent of facilitating uniform target selection and searches for rare/exotic objects (e.g., high-redshift quasars and distant galaxy clusters). Forced photometry depths achieved with these coadds extend 0.56 (0.46) magnitudes deeper in W1 (W2) than is possible with only pre-hibernation WISE imaging.« less
    Cited by 1
  • A distant, as yet unseen ninth planet has been invoked to explain various observations of the outer solar system. While such a "Planet Nine," if it exists, is most likely to be discovered via reflected light in the optical, it may emit much more strongly at 3-5 μm than simple blackbody predictions would suggest, depending on its atmospheric properties. As a result, Planet Nine may be detectable at 3.4 μm with the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer, but single exposures are too shallow except at relatively small distances (more » $${d}_{9}\lesssim 430$$ au). In this paper, we develop a method to search for Planet Nine far beyond the W1 single-exposure sensitivity, to distances as large as 800 au, using inertial coadds of W1 exposures binned into ~1 day intervals. We apply our methodology to a ~2000 square degree testbed sky region which overlaps a southern segment of Planet Nine's anticipated orbital path. We do not detect a plausible Planet Nine candidate, but are able to derive a detailed completeness curve, ruling out its presence within the parameter space searched at W1 < 16.66 (90% completeness). Our method uses all publicly available W1 imaging, spanning 2010 January to 2015 December, and will become more sensitive with future NEOWISE-Reactivation releases of additional W1 exposures. Finally, we anticipate that our method will be applicable to the entire high Galactic latitude sky, and we will extend our search to that full footprint in the near future.« less
  • We present preliminary diameters and albedos for 7956 asteroids detected in the first year of the NEOWISE Reactivation mission. Of those, 201 are near-Earth asteroids and 7755 are Main Belt or Mars-crossing asteroids. 17% of these objects have not been previously characterized using the Near-Earth Object Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer, or “NEOWISE” thermal measurements. Diameters are determined to an accuracy of ∼20% or better. If good-quality H magnitudes are available, albedos can be determined to within ∼40% or better.