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Title: P-Type Transparent Cu-Alloyed ZnS Deposited at Room Temperature

Abstract

All transparent conducting materials (TCMs) of technological practicality are n-type; the inferior conductivity of p-type TCMs has limited their adoption. Additionally, many relatively high-performing p-type TCMs require synthesis temperatures > 400 °C. Here, room-temperature pulsed laser deposition of copper-alloyed zinc sulfide (Cu x Zn 1- x S) thin films (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.75) is reported. For 0.09 ≤ x ≤ 0.35, Cu x Zn 1- x S has high p-type conductivity, up to 42 S cm -1 at x = 0.30, with an optical band gap tunable from ≈3.0–3.3 eV and transparency, averaged over the visible, of 50%–71% for 200–250 nm thick films. In this range, synchrotron X-ray and electron diffraction reveal a nanocrystalline ZnS structure. Secondary crystalline Cu y S phases are not observed, and at higher Cu concentrations, x > 0.45, films are amorphous and poorly conducting. Furthermore, within the TCM regime, the conductivity is temperature independent, indicating degenerate hole conduction. A decrease in lattice parameter with Cu content suggests that the hole conduction is due to substitutional incorporation of Cu onto Zn sites. This hole-conducting phase is embedded in a less conducting amorphous Cu y S, which dominates at higher Cu concentrations. Finally, the combinationmore » of high hole conductivity and optical transparency for the peak conductivity Cu x Zn 1- x S films is among the best reported to date for a room temperature deposited p-type TCM.« less

Authors:
 [1];  [2];  [1];  [3];  [3];  [4];  [4];  [3];  [2];  [5]
  1. Materials Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road Berkeley CA 94720 USA
  2. Joint Center for Artificial Photosynthesis, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road Berkeley CA 94720 USA; Chemical Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road Berkeley CA 94720 USA
  3. Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, 2575 Sand Hill Road Menlo Park CA 94025 USA
  4. Department of Energy, Environmental and Chemical Engineering, Washington University in St. Louis, Brauer Hall, CB 1180, 1 Brookings Drive Saint Louis MO 63130 USA
  5. Materials Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road Berkeley CA 94720 USA; Joint Center for Artificial Photosynthesis, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road Berkeley CA 94720 USA
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Basic Energy Sciences (BES) (SC-22); USDOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Solar Energy Technologies Office (EE-4S)
OSTI Identifier:
1379364
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC02-05CH11231; EE0004946; AC36-08GO28308; SC0004993; AC02-76SF00515
Resource Type:
Journal Article: Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Advanced Electronic Materials
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 2; Journal Issue: 6; Journal ID: ISSN 2199-160X
Publisher:
Wiley
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; p-type TCMs; transparent conductors; copper-alloyed zinc sulfide; pulsed laser deposition; room temperature processing

Citation Formats

Woods-Robinson, Rachel, Cooper, Jason K., Xu, Xiaojie, Schelhas, Laura T., Pool, Vanessa L., Faghaninia, Alireza, Lo, Cynthia S., Toney, Michael F., Sharp, Ian D., and Ager, Joel W. P-Type Transparent Cu-Alloyed ZnS Deposited at Room Temperature. United States: N. p., 2016. Web. doi:10.1002/aelm.201500396.
Woods-Robinson, Rachel, Cooper, Jason K., Xu, Xiaojie, Schelhas, Laura T., Pool, Vanessa L., Faghaninia, Alireza, Lo, Cynthia S., Toney, Michael F., Sharp, Ian D., & Ager, Joel W. P-Type Transparent Cu-Alloyed ZnS Deposited at Room Temperature. United States. doi:10.1002/aelm.201500396.
Woods-Robinson, Rachel, Cooper, Jason K., Xu, Xiaojie, Schelhas, Laura T., Pool, Vanessa L., Faghaninia, Alireza, Lo, Cynthia S., Toney, Michael F., Sharp, Ian D., and Ager, Joel W. Wed . "P-Type Transparent Cu-Alloyed ZnS Deposited at Room Temperature". United States. doi:10.1002/aelm.201500396. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1379364.
@article{osti_1379364,
title = {P-Type Transparent Cu-Alloyed ZnS Deposited at Room Temperature},
author = {Woods-Robinson, Rachel and Cooper, Jason K. and Xu, Xiaojie and Schelhas, Laura T. and Pool, Vanessa L. and Faghaninia, Alireza and Lo, Cynthia S. and Toney, Michael F. and Sharp, Ian D. and Ager, Joel W.},
abstractNote = {All transparent conducting materials (TCMs) of technological practicality are n-type; the inferior conductivity of p-type TCMs has limited their adoption. Additionally, many relatively high-performing p-type TCMs require synthesis temperatures > 400 °C. Here, room-temperature pulsed laser deposition of copper-alloyed zinc sulfide (Cu x Zn 1- x S) thin films (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.75) is reported. For 0.09 ≤ x ≤ 0.35, Cu x Zn 1- x S has high p-type conductivity, up to 42 S cm -1 at x = 0.30, with an optical band gap tunable from ≈3.0–3.3 eV and transparency, averaged over the visible, of 50%–71% for 200–250 nm thick films. In this range, synchrotron X-ray and electron diffraction reveal a nanocrystalline ZnS structure. Secondary crystalline Cu y S phases are not observed, and at higher Cu concentrations, x > 0.45, films are amorphous and poorly conducting. Furthermore, within the TCM regime, the conductivity is temperature independent, indicating degenerate hole conduction. A decrease in lattice parameter with Cu content suggests that the hole conduction is due to substitutional incorporation of Cu onto Zn sites. This hole-conducting phase is embedded in a less conducting amorphous Cu y S, which dominates at higher Cu concentrations. Finally, the combination of high hole conductivity and optical transparency for the peak conductivity Cu x Zn 1- x S films is among the best reported to date for a room temperature deposited p-type TCM.},
doi = {10.1002/aelm.201500396},
journal = {Advanced Electronic Materials},
number = 6,
volume = 2,
place = {United States},
year = {Wed Mar 16 00:00:00 EDT 2016},
month = {Wed Mar 16 00:00:00 EDT 2016}
}

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Works referenced in this record:

Synthesis of Novel Thin-Film Materials by Pulsed Laser Deposition
journal, August 1996


Transparent Conducting Oxides for Photovoltaics
journal, March 2007

  • Fortunato, Elvira; Ginley, David; Hosono, Hideo
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  • DOI: 10.1557/mrs2007.29

Room-temperature deposition of indium tin oxide thin films with plasma ion-assisted evaporation
journal, November 1998


Transparent conducting oxide films for thin film silicon photovoltaics
journal, December 2007