skip to main content
OSTI.GOV title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: Selection Criteria and Screening of Potential Biomass-Derived Streams as Fuel Blendstocks for Advanced Spark-Ignition Engines

Abstract

Here, we describe a study to identify potential biofuels that enable advanced spark ignition (SI) engine efficiency strategies to be pursued more aggressively. A list of potential biomass-derived blendstocks was developed. An online database of properties and characteristics of these bioblendstocks was created and populated. Fuel properties were determined by measurement, model prediction, or literature review. Screening criteria were developed to determine if a bioblendstock met the requirements for advanced SI engines. Criteria included melting point (or cloud point) < -10 degrees C and boiling point (or T90) <165 degrees C. Compounds insoluble or poorly soluble in hydrocarbon were eliminated from consideration, as were those known to cause corrosion (carboxylic acids or high acid number mixtures) and those with hazard classification as known or suspected carcinogens or reproductive toxins. Compounds predicted to be less anaerobically biodegradable than methyl-tert-butyl ether with water solubility greater than 10,000 mg/L were also eliminated. A minimum Research octane number (RON) of 98 was applied. These criteria produced a list of 40 bioblendstocks with promising properties. Additional property data, including Motor octane number (MON), heat of vaporization, and lower heating value, were acquired for these bioblendstocks. A subset of the bioblendstocks representing all functional groups weremore » blended into gasoline or a gasoline surrogate to measure their effect on vapor pressure, distillation curve, oxidation stability, RON, and MON. For blending into a conventional or reformulated blendstock for E10 blending, ethanol, 2-butanol, isobutanol, and diisobutylene have the most desirable properties for blending of a high-octane advanced SI engine fuel.« less

Authors:
 [1];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [2];  [3];  [3];  [3];  [4];  [4]
  1. National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)
  2. Ecoengineering Inc., Sharonville, OH (United States)
  3. Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)
  4. Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Bioenergy Technologies Office (EE-3B); USDOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Vehicle Technologies Office (EE-3V)
OSTI Identifier:
1378889
Report Number(s):
NREL/JA-5400-67366
Journal ID: ISSN 1946-3960
Grant/Contract Number:
AC36-08GO28308
Resource Type:
Journal Article: Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants (Online)
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Name: SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants (Online); Journal Volume: 10; Journal Issue: 2; Journal ID: ISSN 1946-3960
Publisher:
SAE International
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
09 BIOMASS FUELS; biofuel; gasoline; spark-ignition; fuel properties

Citation Formats

McCormick, Robert L., Fioroni, Gina, Fouts, Lisa, Christensen, Earl, Yanowitz, Janet, Polikarpov, Evgueni, Albrecht, Karl, Gaspar, Daniel J., Gladden, John, and George, Anthe. Selection Criteria and Screening of Potential Biomass-Derived Streams as Fuel Blendstocks for Advanced Spark-Ignition Engines. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.4271/2017-01-0868.
McCormick, Robert L., Fioroni, Gina, Fouts, Lisa, Christensen, Earl, Yanowitz, Janet, Polikarpov, Evgueni, Albrecht, Karl, Gaspar, Daniel J., Gladden, John, & George, Anthe. Selection Criteria and Screening of Potential Biomass-Derived Streams as Fuel Blendstocks for Advanced Spark-Ignition Engines. United States. doi:10.4271/2017-01-0868.
McCormick, Robert L., Fioroni, Gina, Fouts, Lisa, Christensen, Earl, Yanowitz, Janet, Polikarpov, Evgueni, Albrecht, Karl, Gaspar, Daniel J., Gladden, John, and George, Anthe. Tue . "Selection Criteria and Screening of Potential Biomass-Derived Streams as Fuel Blendstocks for Advanced Spark-Ignition Engines". United States. doi:10.4271/2017-01-0868. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1378889.
@article{osti_1378889,
title = {Selection Criteria and Screening of Potential Biomass-Derived Streams as Fuel Blendstocks for Advanced Spark-Ignition Engines},
author = {McCormick, Robert L. and Fioroni, Gina and Fouts, Lisa and Christensen, Earl and Yanowitz, Janet and Polikarpov, Evgueni and Albrecht, Karl and Gaspar, Daniel J. and Gladden, John and George, Anthe},
abstractNote = {Here, we describe a study to identify potential biofuels that enable advanced spark ignition (SI) engine efficiency strategies to be pursued more aggressively. A list of potential biomass-derived blendstocks was developed. An online database of properties and characteristics of these bioblendstocks was created and populated. Fuel properties were determined by measurement, model prediction, or literature review. Screening criteria were developed to determine if a bioblendstock met the requirements for advanced SI engines. Criteria included melting point (or cloud point) < -10 degrees C and boiling point (or T90) <165 degrees C. Compounds insoluble or poorly soluble in hydrocarbon were eliminated from consideration, as were those known to cause corrosion (carboxylic acids or high acid number mixtures) and those with hazard classification as known or suspected carcinogens or reproductive toxins. Compounds predicted to be less anaerobically biodegradable than methyl-tert-butyl ether with water solubility greater than 10,000 mg/L were also eliminated. A minimum Research octane number (RON) of 98 was applied. These criteria produced a list of 40 bioblendstocks with promising properties. Additional property data, including Motor octane number (MON), heat of vaporization, and lower heating value, were acquired for these bioblendstocks. A subset of the bioblendstocks representing all functional groups were blended into gasoline or a gasoline surrogate to measure their effect on vapor pressure, distillation curve, oxidation stability, RON, and MON. For blending into a conventional or reformulated blendstock for E10 blending, ethanol, 2-butanol, isobutanol, and diisobutylene have the most desirable properties for blending of a high-octane advanced SI engine fuel.},
doi = {10.4271/2017-01-0868},
journal = {SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants (Online)},
number = 2,
volume = 10,
place = {United States},
year = {Tue Mar 28 00:00:00 EDT 2017},
month = {Tue Mar 28 00:00:00 EDT 2017}
}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
Publisher's Version of Record

Save / Share:
  • 24 biomass-derived compounds and mixtures, identified based on their physical properties, that could be blended into fuels to improve spark ignition engine fuel economy were assessed for their economic, technology readiness, and environmental viability. These bio-blendstocks were modeled to be produced biochemically, thermochemically, or through hybrid processes. To carry out the assessment, 17 metrics were developed for which each bio-blendstock was determined to be favorable, neutral, or unfavorable. Cellulosic ethanol was included as a reference case. Overall, bio-blendstock yields in biochemical processes were lower than in thermochemical processes, in which all biomass, including lignin, is converted to a product. Bio-blendstockmore » yields were a key determinant in overall viability. Key knowledge gaps included the degree of purity needed for use as a bio-blendstock as compared to a chemical. Less stringent purification requirements for fuels could cut processing costs and environmental impacts. Additionally, more information is needed on the blendability of many of these bio-blendstocks with gasoline to support the technology readiness evaluation. Overall, the technology to produce many of these blendstocks from biomass is emerging and as it matures, these assessments must be revisited. Importantly, considering economic, environmental, and technology readiness factors in addition to physical properties of blendstocks that could be used to boost fuel economy can help spotlight those most likely to be viable in the near term.« less
  • Twenty-four biomass-derived compounds and mixtures, identified based on their physical properties, which could be blended into fuels to improve spark ignition engine fuel economy, were assessed for their economic, technology readiness, and environmental viability. These bio-blendstocks were modeled to be produced biochemically, thermochemically, or through hybrid processes. To carry out the assessment, 17 metrics were developed for which each bio-blendstock was determined to be favorable, neutral, or unfavorable. Cellulosic ethanol was included as a reference case. Overall economic and, to some extent, environmental viability is driven by projected yields for each of these processes. The metrics used in this analysismore » methodology highlight the near-term potential to achieve these targeted yield estimates when considering data quality and current technical readiness for these conversion strategies. Key knowledge gaps included the degree of purity needed for use as a bio-blendstock. Less stringent purification requirements for fuels could cut processing costs and environmental impacts. Additionally, more information is needed on the blending behavior of many of these bio-blendstocks with gasoline to support the technology readiness evaluation. Altogether, the technology to produce many of these blendstocks from biomass is emerging, and as it matures, these assessments must be revisited. Importantly, considering economic, environmental, and technology readiness factors, in addition to physical properties of blendstocks that could be used to boost engine efficiency and fuel economy, in the early stages of project research and development can help spotlight those most likely to be viable in the near term.« less
  • Twenty-four biomass-derived compounds and mixtures, identified based on their physical properties, which could be blended into fuels to improve spark ignition engine fuel economy, were assessed for their economic, technology readiness, and environmental viability. These bio-blendstocks were modeled to be produced biochemically, thermochemically, or through hybrid processes. To carry out the assessment, 17 metrics were developed for which each bio-blendstock was determined to be favorable, neutral, or unfavorable. Cellulosic ethanol was included as a reference case. Overall economic and, to some extent, environmental viability is driven by projected yields for each of these processes. The metrics used in this analysismore » methodology highlight the near-term potential to achieve these targeted yield estimates when considering data quality and current technical readiness for these conversion strategies. Key knowledge gaps included the degree of purity needed for use as a bio-blendstock. Less stringent purification requirements for fuels could cut processing costs and environmental impacts. Additionally, more information is needed on the blending behavior of many of these bio-blendstocks with gasoline to support the technology readiness evaluation. Altogether, the technology to produce many of these blendstocks from biomass is emerging, and as it matures, these assessments must be revisited. Importantly, considering economic, environmental, and technology readiness factors, in addition to physical properties of blendstocks that could be used to boost engine efficiency and fuel economy, in the early stages of project research and development can help spotlight those most likely to be viable in the near term.« less
  • Twenty-four biomass-derived compounds and mixtures, identified based on their physical properties, which could be blended into fuels to improve spark ignition engine fuel economy, were assessed for their economic, technology readiness, and environmental viability. These bio-blendstocks were modeled to be produced biochemically, thermochemically, or through hybrid processes. To carry out the assessment, 17 metrics were developed for which each bio-blendstock was determined to be favorable, neutral, or unfavorable. Cellulosic ethanol was included as a reference case. Overall economic and, to some extent, environmental viability is driven by projected yields for each of these processes. The metrics used in this analysismore » methodology highlight the near-term potential to achieve these targeted yield estimates when considering data quality and current technical readiness for these conversion strategies. Key knowledge gaps included the degree of purity needed for use as a bio-blendstock. Less stringent purification requirements for fuels could cut processing costs and environmental impacts. Additionally, more information is needed on the blending behavior of many of these bio-blendstocks with gasoline to support the technology readiness evaluation. Overall, the technology to produce many of these blendstocks from biomass is emerging, and as it matures, these assessments must be revisited. Importantly, considering economic, environmental, and technology readiness factors, in addition to physical properties of blendstocks that could be used to boost engine efficiency and fuel economy, in the early stages of project research and development can help spotlight those most likely to be viable in the near term.« less
  • Twenty-four biomass-derived compounds and mixtures, identified based on their physical properties, which could be blended into fuels to improve spark ignition engine fuel economy, were assessed for their economic, technology readiness, and environmental viability. These bio-blendstocks were modeled to be produced biochemically, thermochemically, or through hybrid processes. To carry out the assessment, 17 metrics were developed for which each bio-blendstock was determined to be favorable, neutral, or unfavorable. Cellulosic ethanol was included as a reference case. Overall economic and, to some extent, environmental viability is driven by projected yields for each of these processes. The metrics used in this analysismore » methodology highlight the near-term potential to achieve these targeted yield estimates when considering data quality and current technical readiness for these conversion strategies. Key knowledge gaps included the degree of purity needed for use as a bio-blendstock. Less stringent purification requirements for fuels could cut processing costs and environmental impacts. Additionally, more information is needed on the blending behavior of many of these bio-blendstocks with gasoline to support the technology readiness evaluation. Lastly, the technology to produce many of these blendstocks from biomass is emerging, and as it matures, these assessments must be revisited. Importantly, considering economic, environmental, and technology readiness factors, in addition to physical properties of blendstocks that could be used to boost engine efficiency and fuel economy, in the early stages of project research and development can help spotlight those most likely to be viable in the near term.« less