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Title: Characterization of the homologs of flerovium with crown ether based extraction chromatography resins: studies in nitric acid

Abstract

Eichrom’s Pb resin, a crown-ether-based extraction chromatography resin, was characterized for separation of the flerovium (Fl) homologs, Pb and Sn. Batch uptake of Pb(II) and Sn(IV) radionuclides was determined from an HNO 3 matrix. Pb(II) was strongly retained on the resin at all HNO 3 concentrations, while Sn(IV) showed no uptake. Extraction kinetics for Pb(II) were examined and show suitable uptake on the second time scale. Here, separation methods for the isolation of individual homologs, Pb(II) and Sn(IV), have been established using 2 mL pre-packed vacuum flow Pb resin columns.

Authors:
 [1];  [2];  [3];  [3];  [3];  [3];  [4]
  1. Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Univ. of Nevada, Las Vegas, NV (United States)
  2. Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)
  3. Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)
  4. Univ. of Nevada, Las Vegas, NV (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
OSTI Identifier:
1377776
Report Number(s):
LLNL-JRNL-696830
Journal ID: ISSN 0236-5731
Grant/Contract Number:
AC52-07NA27344
Resource Type:
Journal Article: Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 311; Journal Issue: 1; Journal ID: ISSN 0236-5731
Publisher:
Springer
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
38 RADIATION CHEMISTRY, RADIOCHEMISTRY, AND NUCLEAR CHEMISTRY; 37 INORGANIC, ORGANIC, PHYSICAL AND ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY

Citation Formats

Despotopulos, John D., Kmak, Kelly N., Gharibyan, Narek, Henderson, Roger A., Moody, Kenton J., Shaughnessy, Dawn A., and Sudowe, Ralf. Characterization of the homologs of flerovium with crown ether based extraction chromatography resins: studies in nitric acid. United States: N. p., 2016. Web. doi:10.1007/s10967-016-5038-4.
Despotopulos, John D., Kmak, Kelly N., Gharibyan, Narek, Henderson, Roger A., Moody, Kenton J., Shaughnessy, Dawn A., & Sudowe, Ralf. Characterization of the homologs of flerovium with crown ether based extraction chromatography resins: studies in nitric acid. United States. doi:10.1007/s10967-016-5038-4.
Despotopulos, John D., Kmak, Kelly N., Gharibyan, Narek, Henderson, Roger A., Moody, Kenton J., Shaughnessy, Dawn A., and Sudowe, Ralf. 2016. "Characterization of the homologs of flerovium with crown ether based extraction chromatography resins: studies in nitric acid". United States. doi:10.1007/s10967-016-5038-4. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1377776.
@article{osti_1377776,
title = {Characterization of the homologs of flerovium with crown ether based extraction chromatography resins: studies in nitric acid},
author = {Despotopulos, John D. and Kmak, Kelly N. and Gharibyan, Narek and Henderson, Roger A. and Moody, Kenton J. and Shaughnessy, Dawn A. and Sudowe, Ralf},
abstractNote = {Eichrom’s Pb resin, a crown-ether-based extraction chromatography resin, was characterized for separation of the flerovium (Fl) homologs, Pb and Sn. Batch uptake of Pb(II) and Sn(IV) radionuclides was determined from an HNO3 matrix. Pb(II) was strongly retained on the resin at all HNO3 concentrations, while Sn(IV) showed no uptake. Extraction kinetics for Pb(II) were examined and show suitable uptake on the second time scale. Here, separation methods for the isolation of individual homologs, Pb(II) and Sn(IV), have been established using 2 mL pre-packed vacuum flow Pb resin columns.},
doi = {10.1007/s10967-016-5038-4},
journal = {Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry},
number = 1,
volume = 311,
place = {United States},
year = 2016,
month = 9
}

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  • By use of the modeling program SXLSQA, it has been possible to perform an extensive equilibrium analysis of the extraction of Mn(II) from nitric acid by didodecylnaphthalene sulfonic acid (HDDNS) in combination with either t-butylbenzo-15-crown-5 (tBB15C5) or t-butylcyclohexano-15-crown-5 (tBC15C5) in toluene. Overall, only 1:1 metal:crown ether interactions have been found, and HDDNS acts both as a cation exchanger and as a solvating agent leading to small aggregates. Used alone, HDDNS exists in the form of the fourfold aggregate (HA){sub 4} in equilibrium with the monomer HA (HA represents HDDNS with its acidic proton; associated water is omitted) and extracts Mn(II)more » to form the species MnH{sub 2}A{sub 4}. The crown ethers used alone extract Mn(II) weakly. When combined with HDDNS, tBB15C5 depresses the extraction of the metal compared with HDDNS used alone. In this case, the apparent antagonism is attributed to the interaction of HDDNS with tBB15C5 to give the adducts (HA)B and (HA){sub 2}B (B represents the crown ether). No complex of Mn(II) with tBB15C5 and HDDNS was found. However, tBC15C5 synergizes the extraction of Mn(II) by HDDNS with formation of a family of 1:1 metal:crown ether complexes of the form M n B H{sub a-2}A{sub a} (a = 2 to 4). Opposing the synergistic effect was the solvation of the crown ether by HDDNS to give a family of species of the form (HA){sub a}{prime}B (a{prime} = 1, 2 and 4). 42 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.« less
  • In order to take practical advantage of the size-selective cation-coordinating ability of the cyclic polyethers (crown ethers), experiments seeking a means of avoiding the problem of solubilizing a mineral-acid anion in a nonpolar organic diluent were performed. Mixtures of several known extractants and crown ethers were tried. Results presented indicate that organic soluble cation exchangers mixed in solution with crown ethers produce a synergistic extractant mixture that largely exhibits the size-selective properties expected of the crown ether. Data are presented for the extraction of macro concentrations of alkali metals by di(2-ethylhexyl) phosphoric acid - dicyclohexyl-18-crown-6 mixtures at a single pH,more » and at nonloading condition (..sigma.. metal conc < 0.04 M) as a function of pH, 2 to 6. In both cases potassium is synergized most strongly presumably because of its best fit to the crown ether cavity. Other data indicate, however, that the size-fit principle is not as consistent for all alkali metal ions and crown ethers as for potassium and dicyclohexyl-18-crown-6. Other effects such as competition for ion hydration and aqueous-phase distribution of the complex may have important effects that have not been elucidated.« less
  • Studies of the chemical properties of superheavy elements (SHE) pose interesting challenges due to their short half-lives and low production rates. Chemical systems must have extremely fast kinetics, fast enough kinetics to be able to examine the chemical properties of interest before the SHE decays to another nuclide. To achieve chemistry on such time scales, the chemical system must also be easily automated. Most importantly however, a chemical system must be developed which provides suitable separation and kinetics before an on-line study of a SHE can be performed. Relativistic effects make studying the chemical properties of SHEs interesting due tomore » the impact these effects could have on the SHEs chemical properties. Relativistic effects arise when the velocity of the s orbital electrons approach the speed of light. As this velocity increases, the Bohr radius of the inner electron orbitals decreases and there is an increase in the particles mass. This contraction results in a destabilization of the energy of the outer d and f electron orbitals (5f and 6d in the case of SHE), which can cause these to expand due to their increased shielding from the nuclear charge. Another relativistic effect is the spin-orbit splitting for p, d, and f orbitals into j = 1 {+-} 1/2 states. This can lead most interestingly to a possible increased stability of element 114, which due to large spin-orbit splitting of the 7p orbital and the relativistically stabilized 7p{sub 1/2} and 7s orbital gives rise to a closed shell ground state of 7s{sup 2}7p{sub 1/2}{sup 2}. The homologs of element 105, dubnium (Db), Ta and Nb and the pseudo-homolog Pa, are well known to hydrolyze and form both neutral and non-neutral monoatomic and polyatomic species that may cause issues with extraction from a given chemical system. Early ion-exchange and solvent-extraction studies show mixed results for the behavior of Db. Some studies show Db behaving most similar to Ta, while others show it behaving somewhere between Nb and Pa. Much more recent studies have examined the properties of Db from HNO{sub 3}/HF matrices, and suggest Db forms complexes similar to those of Pa. Very little experimental work into the behavior of element 114 has been performed. Thermochromatography experiments of three atoms of element 114 indicate that the element 114 is at least as volatile as Hg, At, and element 112. Lead was shown to deposit on gold at temperatures about 1000 C higher than the atoms of element 114. Results indicate a substantially increased stability of element 114. No liquid phase studies of element 114 or its homologs (Pb, Sn, Ge) or pseudo-homologs (Hg, Cd) have been performed. Theoretical predictions indicate that element 114 is should have a much more stable +2 oxidation state and neutral state than Pb, which would result in element 114 being less reactive and less metallic than Pb. The relativistic effects on the 7p{sub 1/2} electrons are predicted to cause a diagonal relationship to be introduced into the periodic table. Therefore, 114{sup 2+} is expected to behave as if it were somewhere between Hg{sup 2+}, Cd{sup 2+}, and Pb{sup 2+}. In this work two commercially available extraction chromatography resins are evaluated, one for the separation of Db homologs and pseudo?homologs from each other as well as from potential interfering elements such as Group IV Rf homologs and actinides, and the other for separation of element 114 homologs. One resin, Eichrom's DGA resin, contains a N,N,N',N'-tetra-n-octyldiglycolamide extractant, which separates analytes based on both size and charge characteristics of the solvated metal species, coated on an inert support. The DGA resin was examined for Db chemical systems, and shows a high degree of selectivity for tri-, tetra-, and hexavalent metal ions in multiple acid matrices with fast kinetics. The other resin, Eichrom's Pb resin, contains a di-t-butylcyclohexano 18-crown-6 extractant with isodecanol solvent, which separates analytes based on steric interactions between the cavity of the crown ether and electrostatic interactions between the oxygen's of the ether and cations in the mobile phase. This particular resin has been shown to have an extremely high uptake affinity for Pb, a direct homolog of element 114, and is thus a good initial extractant to examine for a potential element 114 chemical system. Figure 1.1 shows the respective extractant molecules from the DGA and Pb resins. Batch uptake experiments were conducted to examine the uptake behavior of Ta on the DGA resin. Batch uptake experiments were also conducted to examine the uptake behavior of Ge on the Pb resin. Column experiments were designed based on batch uptake experiments of Ta, Am, Pa, Np, Zr, and Nb to establish a sequential extraction of Group IV/V homologs as well as Am for potential use as a Db chemical system.« less