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Title: Regenerative Carbonate-Based Thermochemical Energy Storage System for Concentrating Solar Power

Abstract

Southern Research has developed a thermochemical energy storage (TCES) technology that utilizes the endothermic-exothermic reversible carbonation of calcium oxide (lime) to store thermal energy at high-temperatures, such as those achieved by next generation concentrating solar power (CSP) facilities. The major challenges addressed in the development of this system include refining a high capacity, yet durable sorbent material and designing a low thermal resistance low-cost heat exchanger reactor system to move heat between the sorbent and a heat transfer fluid under conditions relevant for CSP operation (e.g., energy density, reaction kinetics, heat flow). The proprietary stabilized sorbent was developed by Precision Combustion, Inc. (PCI). A factorial matrix of sorbent compositions covering the design space was tested using accelerated high throughput screening in a thermo-gravimetric analyzer. Several promising formulations were selected for more thorough evaluation and one formulation with high capacity (0.38 g CO 2/g sorbent) and durability (>99.7% capacity retention over 100 cycles) was chosen as a basis for further development of the energy storage reactor system. In parallel with this effort, a full range of currently available commercial and developmental heat exchange reactor systems and sorbent loading methods were examined through literature research and contacts with commercial vendors. Process modelsmore » were developed to examine if a heat exchange reactor system and balance of plant can meet required TCES performance and cost targets, optimizing tradeoffs between thermal performance, exergetic efficiency, and cost. Reactor types evaluated included many forms, from microchannel reactor, to diffusion bonded heat exchanger, to shell and tube heat exchangers. The most viable design for application to a supercritical CO 2 power cycle operating at 200-300 bar pressure and >700°C was determined to be a combination of a diffusion bonded heat exchanger with a shell and tube reactor. A bench scale reactor system was then designed and constructed to test sorbent performance under more commercially relevant conditions. This system utilizes a tube-in tube reactor design containing approximately 250 grams sorbent and is able to operate under a wide range of temperature, pressure and flow conditions as needed to explore system performance under a variety of operating conditions. A variety of sorbent loading methods may be tested using the reactor design. Initial bench test results over 25 cycles showed very high sorbent stability (>99%) and sufficient capacity (>0.28 g CO 2/g sorbent) for an economical commercial-scale system. Initial technoeconomic evaluation of the proposed storage system show that the sorbent cost should not have a significant impact on overall system cost, and that the largest cost impacts come from the heat exchanger reactor and balance of plant equipment, including compressors and gas storage, due to the high temperatures for sCO 2 cycles. Current estimated system costs are $47/kWhth based on current material and equipment cost estimates.« less

Authors:
 [1];  [1]
  1. Southern Research Inst., Durham, NC (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Southern Research Inst., Durham, NC (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)
OSTI Identifier:
1377395
Report Number(s):
DOE-SouthernResearch-6535
16EE000448
DOE Contract Number:
EE0006535
Resource Type:
Technical Report
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
25 ENERGY STORAGE; 14 SOLAR ENERGY; 29 ENERGY PLANNING, POLICY, AND ECONOMY; thermochemical energy storage; concentrated solar power

Citation Formats

Gangwal, Santosh, and Muto, Andrew. Regenerative Carbonate-Based Thermochemical Energy Storage System for Concentrating Solar Power. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.2172/1377395.
Gangwal, Santosh, & Muto, Andrew. Regenerative Carbonate-Based Thermochemical Energy Storage System for Concentrating Solar Power. United States. doi:10.2172/1377395.
Gangwal, Santosh, and Muto, Andrew. Wed . "Regenerative Carbonate-Based Thermochemical Energy Storage System for Concentrating Solar Power". United States. doi:10.2172/1377395. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1377395.
@article{osti_1377395,
title = {Regenerative Carbonate-Based Thermochemical Energy Storage System for Concentrating Solar Power},
author = {Gangwal, Santosh and Muto, Andrew},
abstractNote = {Southern Research has developed a thermochemical energy storage (TCES) technology that utilizes the endothermic-exothermic reversible carbonation of calcium oxide (lime) to store thermal energy at high-temperatures, such as those achieved by next generation concentrating solar power (CSP) facilities. The major challenges addressed in the development of this system include refining a high capacity, yet durable sorbent material and designing a low thermal resistance low-cost heat exchanger reactor system to move heat between the sorbent and a heat transfer fluid under conditions relevant for CSP operation (e.g., energy density, reaction kinetics, heat flow). The proprietary stabilized sorbent was developed by Precision Combustion, Inc. (PCI). A factorial matrix of sorbent compositions covering the design space was tested using accelerated high throughput screening in a thermo-gravimetric analyzer. Several promising formulations were selected for more thorough evaluation and one formulation with high capacity (0.38 g CO2/g sorbent) and durability (>99.7% capacity retention over 100 cycles) was chosen as a basis for further development of the energy storage reactor system. In parallel with this effort, a full range of currently available commercial and developmental heat exchange reactor systems and sorbent loading methods were examined through literature research and contacts with commercial vendors. Process models were developed to examine if a heat exchange reactor system and balance of plant can meet required TCES performance and cost targets, optimizing tradeoffs between thermal performance, exergetic efficiency, and cost. Reactor types evaluated included many forms, from microchannel reactor, to diffusion bonded heat exchanger, to shell and tube heat exchangers. The most viable design for application to a supercritical CO2 power cycle operating at 200-300 bar pressure and >700°C was determined to be a combination of a diffusion bonded heat exchanger with a shell and tube reactor. A bench scale reactor system was then designed and constructed to test sorbent performance under more commercially relevant conditions. This system utilizes a tube-in tube reactor design containing approximately 250 grams sorbent and is able to operate under a wide range of temperature, pressure and flow conditions as needed to explore system performance under a variety of operating conditions. A variety of sorbent loading methods may be tested using the reactor design. Initial bench test results over 25 cycles showed very high sorbent stability (>99%) and sufficient capacity (>0.28 g CO2/g sorbent) for an economical commercial-scale system. Initial technoeconomic evaluation of the proposed storage system show that the sorbent cost should not have a significant impact on overall system cost, and that the largest cost impacts come from the heat exchanger reactor and balance of plant equipment, including compressors and gas storage, due to the high temperatures for sCO2 cycles. Current estimated system costs are $47/kWhth based on current material and equipment cost estimates.},
doi = {10.2172/1377395},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {Wed Aug 30 00:00:00 EDT 2017},
month = {Wed Aug 30 00:00:00 EDT 2017}
}

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