skip to main content
OSTI.GOV title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: Assimilation of Wave Imaging Radar Observations for Real-time Wave-by-Wave Forecasting

Abstract

This project addressed Topic 3: “Wave Measurement Instrumentation for Feed Forward Controls” under the FOA number DE-FOA-0000971. The overall goal of the program was to develop a phase-resolving wave forecasting technique for application to the active control of Wave Energy Conversion (WEC) devices. We have developed an approach that couples a wave imaging marine radar with a phase-resolving linear wave model for real-time wave field reconstruction and forward propagation of the wave field in space and time. The scope of the project was to develop and assess the performance of this novel forecasting system. Specific project goals were as follows: Develop and verify a fast, GPU-based (Graphical Processing Unit) wave propagation model suitable for phase-resolved computation of nearshore wave transformation over variable bathymetry; Compare the accuracy and speed of performance of the wave model against a deep water model in their ability to predict wave field transformation in the intermediate water depths (50 to 70 m) typical of planned WEC sites; Develop and implement a variational assimilation algorithm that can ingest wave imaging radar observations and estimate the time-varying wave conditions offshore of the domain of interest such that the observed wave field is best reconstructed throughout the domain andmore » then use this to produce model forecasts for a given WEC location; Collect wave-resolving marine radar data, along with relevant in situ wave data, at a suitable wave energy test site, apply the algorithm to the field data, assess performance, and identify any necessary improvements; and Develop a production cost estimate that addresses the affordability of the wave forecasting technology and include in the Final Report. The developed forecasting algorithm (“Wavecast”) was evaluated for both speed and accuracy against a substantial synthetic dataset. Early in the project, performance tests definitively demonstrated that the system was capable of forecasting in real-time, as the GPU-based wave model backbone was very computationally efficient. The data assimilation algorithm was developed on a polar grid domain in order to match the sampling characteristics of the observation system (wave imaging marine radar). For verification purposes, a substantial set of synthetic wave data (i.e. forward runs of the wave model) were generated to be used as ground truth for comparison to the reconstructions and forecasts produced by Wavecast. For these synthetic cases, Wavecast demonstrated very good accuracy, for example, typical forecast correlation coefficients were between 0.84-0.95 when compared to the input data. Dependencies on shadowing, observational noise, and forecast horizon were also identified. During the second year of the project, a short field deployment was conducted in order to assess forecast accuracy under field conditions. For this, a radar was installed on a fishing vessel and observations were collected at the South Energy Test Site (SETS) off the coast of Newport, OR. At the SETS site, simultaneous in situ wave observations were also available owing to an ongoing field project funded separately. Unfortunately, the position and heading information that was available for the fishing vessel were not of sufficient accuracy in order to validate the forecast in a phase-resolving sense. Instead, a spectral comparison was made between the Wavecast forecast and the data from the in situ wave buoy. Although the wave and wind conditions during the field test were complex, the comparison showed a promising reconstruction of the wave spectral shape, where both peaks in the bimodal spectrum were represented. However, the total reconstructed spectral energy (across all directions and frequencies) was limited to 44% of the observed spectrum. Overall, wave-by-wave forecasting using a data assimilation approach based on wave imaging radar observations and a physics-based wave model shows promise for short-term phase-resolved predictions. Two recommendations for future work are as follows: first, we would recommend additional focused field campaigns for algorithm validation. The field campaign should be long enough to capture a range of wave conditions relevant to the target application and WEC site. In addition, it will be crucial to make sure the vessel of choice has high accuracy position and heading instrumentation (this instrumentation is commercially available but not standard on commercial fishing vessels). The second recommendation is to expand the model physics in the wave model backbone to include some nonlinear effects. Specifically, the third-order correction to the wave speed due to amplitude dispersion would be the next step in order to more accurately represent the phase speeds of large amplitude waves.« less

Authors:
 [1]; ORCiD logo [2];  [3];  [4]
  1. Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States)
  2. Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States). School of Civil & Construction Engineering
  3. SRI International, Menlo Park, CA (United States)
  4. Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Water Power Technologies Office (EE-4WP)
OSTI Identifier:
1377063
Report Number(s):
DOE-OSU-06789
DOE Contract Number:  
EE0006789
Resource Type:
Technical Report
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
16 TIDAL AND WAVE POWER; wave forecasting; WEC controls; MHK; wave prediction; wave measurement; mild sloe equations; wave model; wave-by-wave; wavecast; WPTO; Water Power Technologies Office; marine and hydrokinetic

Citation Formats

Simpson, Alexandra, Haller, Merrick, Walker, David, and Lynett, Pat. Assimilation of Wave Imaging Radar Observations for Real-time Wave-by-Wave Forecasting. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.2172/1377063.
Simpson, Alexandra, Haller, Merrick, Walker, David, & Lynett, Pat. Assimilation of Wave Imaging Radar Observations for Real-time Wave-by-Wave Forecasting. United States. doi:10.2172/1377063.
Simpson, Alexandra, Haller, Merrick, Walker, David, and Lynett, Pat. Tue . "Assimilation of Wave Imaging Radar Observations for Real-time Wave-by-Wave Forecasting". United States. doi:10.2172/1377063. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1377063.
@article{osti_1377063,
title = {Assimilation of Wave Imaging Radar Observations for Real-time Wave-by-Wave Forecasting},
author = {Simpson, Alexandra and Haller, Merrick and Walker, David and Lynett, Pat},
abstractNote = {This project addressed Topic 3: “Wave Measurement Instrumentation for Feed Forward Controls” under the FOA number DE-FOA-0000971. The overall goal of the program was to develop a phase-resolving wave forecasting technique for application to the active control of Wave Energy Conversion (WEC) devices. We have developed an approach that couples a wave imaging marine radar with a phase-resolving linear wave model for real-time wave field reconstruction and forward propagation of the wave field in space and time. The scope of the project was to develop and assess the performance of this novel forecasting system. Specific project goals were as follows: Develop and verify a fast, GPU-based (Graphical Processing Unit) wave propagation model suitable for phase-resolved computation of nearshore wave transformation over variable bathymetry; Compare the accuracy and speed of performance of the wave model against a deep water model in their ability to predict wave field transformation in the intermediate water depths (50 to 70 m) typical of planned WEC sites; Develop and implement a variational assimilation algorithm that can ingest wave imaging radar observations and estimate the time-varying wave conditions offshore of the domain of interest such that the observed wave field is best reconstructed throughout the domain and then use this to produce model forecasts for a given WEC location; Collect wave-resolving marine radar data, along with relevant in situ wave data, at a suitable wave energy test site, apply the algorithm to the field data, assess performance, and identify any necessary improvements; and Develop a production cost estimate that addresses the affordability of the wave forecasting technology and include in the Final Report. The developed forecasting algorithm (“Wavecast”) was evaluated for both speed and accuracy against a substantial synthetic dataset. Early in the project, performance tests definitively demonstrated that the system was capable of forecasting in real-time, as the GPU-based wave model backbone was very computationally efficient. The data assimilation algorithm was developed on a polar grid domain in order to match the sampling characteristics of the observation system (wave imaging marine radar). For verification purposes, a substantial set of synthetic wave data (i.e. forward runs of the wave model) were generated to be used as ground truth for comparison to the reconstructions and forecasts produced by Wavecast. For these synthetic cases, Wavecast demonstrated very good accuracy, for example, typical forecast correlation coefficients were between 0.84-0.95 when compared to the input data. Dependencies on shadowing, observational noise, and forecast horizon were also identified. During the second year of the project, a short field deployment was conducted in order to assess forecast accuracy under field conditions. For this, a radar was installed on a fishing vessel and observations were collected at the South Energy Test Site (SETS) off the coast of Newport, OR. At the SETS site, simultaneous in situ wave observations were also available owing to an ongoing field project funded separately. Unfortunately, the position and heading information that was available for the fishing vessel were not of sufficient accuracy in order to validate the forecast in a phase-resolving sense. Instead, a spectral comparison was made between the Wavecast forecast and the data from the in situ wave buoy. Although the wave and wind conditions during the field test were complex, the comparison showed a promising reconstruction of the wave spectral shape, where both peaks in the bimodal spectrum were represented. However, the total reconstructed spectral energy (across all directions and frequencies) was limited to 44% of the observed spectrum. Overall, wave-by-wave forecasting using a data assimilation approach based on wave imaging radar observations and a physics-based wave model shows promise for short-term phase-resolved predictions. Two recommendations for future work are as follows: first, we would recommend additional focused field campaigns for algorithm validation. The field campaign should be long enough to capture a range of wave conditions relevant to the target application and WEC site. In addition, it will be crucial to make sure the vessel of choice has high accuracy position and heading instrumentation (this instrumentation is commercially available but not standard on commercial fishing vessels). The second recommendation is to expand the model physics in the wave model backbone to include some nonlinear effects. Specifically, the third-order correction to the wave speed due to amplitude dispersion would be the next step in order to more accurately represent the phase speeds of large amplitude waves.},
doi = {10.2172/1377063},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {Tue Aug 29 00:00:00 EDT 2017},
month = {Tue Aug 29 00:00:00 EDT 2017}
}

Technical Report:

Save / Share: