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Title: Year-Long Vertical Velocity Statistics Derived from Doppler Lidar Data for the Continental Convective Boundary Layer

Authors:
 [1];  [1];  [2]
  1. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington
  2. Global Systems Division, NOAA/Earth System Research Laboratory, Boulder, Colorado
Publication Date:
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
OSTI Identifier:
1376966
Grant/Contract Number:
KP1701000/57131; SC0014375
Resource Type:
Journal Article: Published Article
Journal Name:
Journal of Applied Meteorology and Climatology
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 56; Journal Issue: 9; Related Information: CHORUS Timestamp: 2017-08-25 14:24:29; Journal ID: ISSN 1558-8424
Publisher:
American Meteorological Society
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English

Citation Formats

Berg, Larry K., Newsom, Rob K., and Turner, David D. Year-Long Vertical Velocity Statistics Derived from Doppler Lidar Data for the Continental Convective Boundary Layer. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.1175/JAMC-D-16-0359.1.
Berg, Larry K., Newsom, Rob K., & Turner, David D. Year-Long Vertical Velocity Statistics Derived from Doppler Lidar Data for the Continental Convective Boundary Layer. United States. doi:10.1175/JAMC-D-16-0359.1.
Berg, Larry K., Newsom, Rob K., and Turner, David D. 2017. "Year-Long Vertical Velocity Statistics Derived from Doppler Lidar Data for the Continental Convective Boundary Layer". United States. doi:10.1175/JAMC-D-16-0359.1.
@article{osti_1376966,
title = {Year-Long Vertical Velocity Statistics Derived from Doppler Lidar Data for the Continental Convective Boundary Layer},
author = {Berg, Larry K. and Newsom, Rob K. and Turner, David D.},
abstractNote = {},
doi = {10.1175/JAMC-D-16-0359.1},
journal = {Journal of Applied Meteorology and Climatology},
number = 9,
volume = 56,
place = {United States},
year = 2017,
month = 8
}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
This content will become publicly available on August 25, 2018
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  • One year of Coherent Doppler Lidar (CDL) data collected at the U.S. Department of Energy’s Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) site in Oklahoma is analyzed to provide profiles of vertical velocity variance, skewness, and kurtosis for cases of cloud-free convective boundary layers. The variance was scaled by the Deardorff convective velocity scale, which was successful when the boundary layer depth was stationary but failed in situations when the layer was changing rapidly. In this study the data are sorted according to time of day, season, wind direction, surface shear stress, degree of instability, and wind shear across the boundary-layer top. Themore » normalized variance was found to have its peak value near a normalized height of 0.25. The magnitude of the variance changes with season, shear stress, and degree of instability, but was not impacted by wind shear across the boundary-layer top. The skewness was largest in the top half of the boundary layer (with the exception of wintertime conditions). The skewness was found to be a function of the season, shear stress, wind shear across the boundary-layer top, with larger amounts of shear leading to smaller values. Like skewness, the vertical profile of kurtosis followed a consistent pattern, with peak values near the boundary-layer top (also with the exception of wintertime data). The altitude of the peak values of kurtosis was found to be lower when there was a large amount of wind shear at the boundary-layer top.« less
  • Since turbulence measurements from Doppler lidars are being increasingly used within wind energy and boundary-layer meteorology, it is important to assess and improve the accuracy of these observations. While turbulent quantities are measured by Doppler lidars in several different ways, the simplest and most frequently used statistic is vertical velocity variance ( w' 2) from zenith stares. But, the competing effects of signal noise and resolution volume limitations, which respectively increase and decrease w' 2, reduce the accuracy of these measurements. Herein, an established method that utilises the autocovariance of the signal to remove noise is evaluated and its skillmore » in correcting for volume-averaging effects in the calculation of w' 2 is also assessed. In addition, this autocovariance technique is further refined by defining the amount of lag time to use for the most accurate estimates of w' 2. And through comparison of observations from two Doppler lidars and sonic anemometers on a 300 m tower, the autocovariance technique is shown to generally improve estimates of w' 2. After the autocovariance technique is applied, values of w' 2 from the Doppler lidars are generally in close agreement ( R 2 ≈ 0.95 -0.98) with those calculated from sonic anemometer measurements.« less
  • Since turbulence measurements from Doppler lidars are being increasingly used within wind energy and boundary-layer meteorology, it is important to assess and improve the accuracy of these observations. While turbulent quantities are measured by Doppler lidars in several different ways, the simplest and most frequently used statistic is vertical velocity variance ( w' 2) from zenith stares. However, the competing effects of signal noise and resolution volume limitations, which respectively increase and decrease w' 2, reduce the accuracy of these measurements. Herein, an established method that utilises the autocovariance of the signal to remove noise is evaluated and its skillmore » in correcting for volume-averaging effects in the calculation of w' 2 is also assessed. Additionally, this autocovariance technique is further refined by defining the amount of lag time to use for the most accurate estimates of w' 2. Through comparison of observations from two Doppler lidars and sonic anemometers on a 300 m tower, the autocovariance technique is shown to generally improve estimates of w' 2. After the autocovariance technique is applied, values of w' 2 from the Doppler lidars are generally in close agreement ( R 2≈0.95-0.98) with those calculated from sonic anemometer measurements.« less
  • Two coherent Doppler lidars from the US Army Research Laboratory (ARL) and Arizona State University (ASU) were deployed in the Joint Urban 2003 atmospheric dispersion field experiment (JU2003) held in Oklahoma City. The dual lidar data are used to evaluate the accuracy of the four-dimensional variational data assimilation (4DVAR) method and identify the coherent flow structures in the urban boundary layer. The objectives of the study are three-fold. The first objective is to examine the effect of eddy viscosity models on the quality of retrieved velocity data. The second objective is to determine the fidelity of single-lidar 4DVAR and evaluatemore » the difference between single- and dual-lidar retrievals. The third objective is to correlate the retrieved flow structures with the ground building data. It is found that the approach of treating eddy viscosity as part of control variables yields better results than the approach of prescribing viscosity. The ARL single-lidar 4DVAR is able to retrieve radial velocity fields with an accuracy of 98% in the along-beam direction and 80-90% in the cross-beam direction. For the dual-lidar 4DVAR, the accuracy of retrieved radial velocity in the ARL cross-beam direction improves to 90-94%. By using the dual-lidar retrieved data as a reference, the single-lidar 4DVAR is able to recover fluctuating velocity fields with 70-80% accuracy in the along-beam direction and 60-70% accuracy in the cross-beam direction. Large-scale convective roll structures are found in the vicinity of downtown airpark and parks. Vortical structures are identified near the business district. Strong updrafts and downdrafts are also found above a cluster of restaurants.« less
  • This work is part of the First International Satellite Land Surface Climatology Project (ISLSCP) Field Experiment (FIFE), an international land-surface-atmosphere experiment aimed at improving the way climate models represent energy, water, heat, and carbon exchanges, and improving the utilization of satellite based remote sensing to monitor such parameters. Here the authors present results on doppler LIDAR measurements used to measure a range of turbulence parameters in the region of the unstable planetary boundary layer (PBL). The parameters include, averaged velocities, cartesian velocities, variances in velocities, parts of the covariance associated with vertical fluxes of horizontal momentum, and third moments ofmore » the vertical velocity. They explain their analysis technique, especially as it relates to error reduction of the averaged turbulence parameters from individual measurements with relatively large errors. The scales studied range from 150m to 12km. With this new diagnostic they address questions about the behavior of the convectively unstable PBL, as well as the stable layer which overlies it.« less