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Title: Preliminary Two-Phase Terry Turbine Nozzle Models for RCIC Off-Design Operation Conditions

Abstract

This report presents the effort to extend the single-phase analytical Terry turbine model to cover two-phase off-design conditions. The work includes: (1) adding well-established two-phase choking models – the Isentropic Homogenous Equilibrium Model (IHEM) and Moody’s model, and (2) theoretical development and implementation of a two-phase nozzle expansion model. The two choking models provide bounding cases for the two-phase choking mass flow rate. The new two-phase Terry turbine model uses the choking models to calculate the mass flow rate, the critical pressure at the nozzle throat, and steam quality. In the divergent stage, we only consider the vapor phase with a similar model for the single-phase case by assuming that the liquid phase would slip along the wall with a much slower speed and will not contribute the impulse on the rotor. We also modify the stagnation conditions according to two-phase choking conditions at the throat and the cross-section areas for steam flow at the nozzle throat and at the nozzle exit. The new two-phase Terry turbine model was benchmarked with the same steam nozzle test as for the single-phase model. Better agreement with the experimental data is observed than from the single-phase model. We also repeated the Terry turbinemore » nozzle benchmark work against the Sandia CFD simulation results with the two-phase model for the pure steam inlet nozzle case. The RCIC start-up tests were simulated and compared with the single-phase model. Similar results are obtained. Finally, we designed a new RCIC system test case to simulate the self-regulated Terry turbine behavior observed in Fukushima accidents. In this test, a period inlet condition for the steam quality varying from 1 to 0 is applied. For the high quality inlet period, the RCIC system behaves just like the normal operation condition with a high pump injection flow rate and a nominal steam release rate through the turbine, with the net addition of water to the primary system; for the low quality inlet period, the RCIC turbine shaft work dramatically decreases and results in a much reduced pump injection flow rate, and the mixture flow rate through the turbine increases due to the high liquid phase flow rate. The net effect for this period is net removal of coolant from the primary loop. With the periodic addition and removal of coolant to the primary loop, the self-regulation mode of the RCIC system can be maintained for a quite long time. Both the IHEM and Moody’s models generate similar phenomena; however noticeable differences can be observed.« less

Authors:
 [1];  [1]
  1. Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Nuclear Energy (NE)
OSTI Identifier:
1376860
Report Number(s):
INL/EXT-17-42125
DOE Contract Number:
AC07-05ID14517
Resource Type:
Technical Report
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
22 GENERAL STUDIES OF NUCLEAR REACTORS; RELAP-7; SBO; Simulation; Terry Turbine

Citation Formats

Zhao, Haihua, and O'Brien, James. Preliminary Two-Phase Terry Turbine Nozzle Models for RCIC Off-Design Operation Conditions. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.2172/1376860.
Zhao, Haihua, & O'Brien, James. Preliminary Two-Phase Terry Turbine Nozzle Models for RCIC Off-Design Operation Conditions. United States. doi:10.2172/1376860.
Zhao, Haihua, and O'Brien, James. 2017. "Preliminary Two-Phase Terry Turbine Nozzle Models for RCIC Off-Design Operation Conditions". United States. doi:10.2172/1376860. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1376860.
@article{osti_1376860,
title = {Preliminary Two-Phase Terry Turbine Nozzle Models for RCIC Off-Design Operation Conditions},
author = {Zhao, Haihua and O'Brien, James},
abstractNote = {This report presents the effort to extend the single-phase analytical Terry turbine model to cover two-phase off-design conditions. The work includes: (1) adding well-established two-phase choking models – the Isentropic Homogenous Equilibrium Model (IHEM) and Moody’s model, and (2) theoretical development and implementation of a two-phase nozzle expansion model. The two choking models provide bounding cases for the two-phase choking mass flow rate. The new two-phase Terry turbine model uses the choking models to calculate the mass flow rate, the critical pressure at the nozzle throat, and steam quality. In the divergent stage, we only consider the vapor phase with a similar model for the single-phase case by assuming that the liquid phase would slip along the wall with a much slower speed and will not contribute the impulse on the rotor. We also modify the stagnation conditions according to two-phase choking conditions at the throat and the cross-section areas for steam flow at the nozzle throat and at the nozzle exit. The new two-phase Terry turbine model was benchmarked with the same steam nozzle test as for the single-phase model. Better agreement with the experimental data is observed than from the single-phase model. We also repeated the Terry turbine nozzle benchmark work against the Sandia CFD simulation results with the two-phase model for the pure steam inlet nozzle case. The RCIC start-up tests were simulated and compared with the single-phase model. Similar results are obtained. Finally, we designed a new RCIC system test case to simulate the self-regulated Terry turbine behavior observed in Fukushima accidents. In this test, a period inlet condition for the steam quality varying from 1 to 0 is applied. For the high quality inlet period, the RCIC system behaves just like the normal operation condition with a high pump injection flow rate and a nominal steam release rate through the turbine, with the net addition of water to the primary system; for the low quality inlet period, the RCIC turbine shaft work dramatically decreases and results in a much reduced pump injection flow rate, and the mixture flow rate through the turbine increases due to the high liquid phase flow rate. The net effect for this period is net removal of coolant from the primary loop. With the periodic addition and removal of coolant to the primary loop, the self-regulation mode of the RCIC system can be maintained for a quite long time. Both the IHEM and Moody’s models generate similar phenomena; however noticeable differences can be observed.},
doi = {10.2172/1376860},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = 2017,
month = 6
}

Technical Report:

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  • As part of the efforts to understand the unexpected “self-regulating” mode of the RCIC (Reactor Core Isolation Cooling) systems in Fukushima accidents and extend BWR RCIC and PWR AFW (Auxiliary Feed Water) operational range and flexibility, mechanistic models for the Terry turbine, based on Sandia’s original work [1], have been developed and implemented in the RELAP-7 code to simulate the RCIC system. In 2016, our effort has been focused on normal working conditions of the RCIC system. More complex off-design conditions will be pursued in later years when more data are available. In the Sandia model, the turbine stator inletmore » velocity is provided according to a reduced-order model which was obtained from a large number of CFD (computational fluid dynamics) simulations. In this work, we propose an alternative method, using an under-expanded jet model to obtain the velocity and thermodynamic conditions for the turbine stator inlet. The models include both an adiabatic expansion process inside the nozzle and a free expansion process outside of the nozzle to ambient pressure. The combined models are able to predict the steam mass flow rate and supersonic velocity to the Terry turbine bucket entrance, which are the necessary input information for the Terry turbine rotor model. The analytical models for the nozzle were validated with experimental data and benchmarked with CFD simulations. The analytical models generally agree well with the experimental data and CFD simulations. The analytical models are suitable for implementation into a reactor system analysis code or severe accident code as part of mechanistic and dynamical models to understand the RCIC behaviors. The newly developed nozzle models and modified turbine rotor model according to the Sandia’s original work have been implemented into RELAP-7, along with the original Sandia Terry turbine model. A new pump model has also been developed and implemented to couple with the Terry turbine model. An input model was developed to test the Terry turbine RCIC system, which generates reasonable results. Both the INL RCIC model and the Sandia RCIC model produce results matching major rated parameters such as the rotational speed, pump torque, and the turbine shaft work for the normal operation condition. The Sandia model is more sensitive to the turbine outlet pressure than the INL model. The next step will be further refining the Terry turbine models by including two-phase flow cases so that off-design conditions can be simulated. The pump model could also be enhanced with the use of the homologous curves.« less
  • All BWR RCIC (Reactor Core Isolation Cooling) systems and PWR AFW (Auxiliary Feed Water) systems use Terry turbine, which is composed of the wheel with turbine buckets and several groups of fixed nozzles and reversing chambers inside the turbine casing. The inlet steam is accelerated through the turbine nozzle and impacts on the wheel buckets, generating work to drive the RCIC pump. As part of the efforts to understand the unexpected “self-regulating” mode of the RCIC systems in Fukushima accidents and extend BWR RCIC and PWR AFW operational range and flexibility, mechanistic models for the Terry turbine, based on Sandiamore » National Laboratories’ original work, has been developed and implemented in the RELAP-7 code to simulate the RCIC system. RELAP-7 is a new reactor system code currently under development with the funding support from U.S. Department of Energy. The RELAP-7 code is a fully implicit code and the preconditioned Jacobian-free Newton-Krylov (JFNK) method is used to solve the discretized nonlinear system. This paper presents a set of analytical models for simulating the flow through the Terry turbine nozzles when inlet fluid is pure steam. The implementation of the models into RELAP-7 will be briefly discussed. In the Sandia model, the turbine bucket inlet velocity is provided according to a reduced-order model, which was obtained from a large number of CFD simulations. In this work, we propose an alternative method, using an under-expanded jet model to obtain the velocity and thermodynamic conditions for the turbine bucket inlet. The models include both adiabatic expansion process inside the nozzle and free expansion process out of the nozzle to reach the ambient pressure. The combined models are able to predict the steam mass flow rate and supersonic velocity to the Terry turbine bucket entrance, which are the necessary input conditions for the Terry Turbine rotor model. The nozzle analytical models were validated with experimental data and benchmarked with CFD simulations. The analytical models generally agree well with the experimental data and CFD simulations. The analytical models are suitable for implementation into a reactor system analysis code or severe accident code as part of mechanistic and dynamical models to understand the RCIC behaviors. The cases with two-phase flow at the turbine inlet will be pursued in future work.« less
  • The Reactor Core Isolation Cooling (RCIC) System is a safety-related system that provides makeup water for core cooling of some Boiling Water Reactors (BWRs) with a Mark I containment. The RCIC System consists of a steam-driven Terry turbine that powers a centrifugal, multi-stage pump for providing water to the reactor pressure vessel. The Fukushima Dai-ichi accidents demonstrated that the RCIC System can play an important role under accident conditions in removing core decay heat. The unexpectedly sustained, good performance of the RCIC System in the Fukushima reactor demonstrates, firstly, that its capabilities are not well understood, and secondly, that themore » system has high potential for extended core cooling in accident scenarios. Better understanding and analysis tools would allow for more options to cope with a severe accident situation and to reduce the consequences. The objectives of this project were to develop physics-based models of the RCIC System, incorporate them into a multi-phase code and validate the models. This Final Technical Report details the progress throughout the project duration and the accomplishments.« less
  • The design and test evaluation of a high temperature combustor component for operation in an industrial gas turbine are described. Specific design considerations include: operation at 2600 to 3000/sup 0/F combustor exit gas temperature; operation on coal-derived low Btu gas fuel; and suitability for integration into a high efficiency, combined cycle electric power generating plant. An annular, air film cooled combustor concept was selected for this program. Detailed analytical studies were conducted, followed by design, fabrication and test evaluation. A gaseous fuel synthesizing facility with a total gas flow capacity of 22,000 ppH for a continuous six-hour period was constructedmore » to supply the test combustor. The goal of 99.8% combustion efficiency at the design point of 0.5 fuel-air ratio was not achieved. However, the design temperature rise of 2220/sup 0/F was demonstrated, and stable combustion was observed over a wide range of fuel-air ratios. Analysis of the test record and emissions measurement indicates marginal fuel and air homogeneity within the primary burning zone at fuel-air ratios above 0.3. It was concluded that all of the combustor design goals can be met with improved fuel-air mixing. The initial combustor design was based upon attainment of sufficient stoichiometric homogeneity by large scale mixing air holes. The combustion test results indicate that this approach did not produce a satisfactory airflow pattern within the combustor primary zone. Therefore, the number of air inlet ports was increased and their locations moved forward to attain a degree of fuel-air premix prior to combustion. No significant improvement in combustion efficiency with the revised axial airflow distribution was found. Results indicated that the simple radial injection design must be supplemented by axial air mixing devices.« less