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Title: Primary Frequency Response with Aggregated DERs

Abstract

Power networks have to withstand a variety of disturbances that affect system frequency, and the problem is compounded with the increasing integration of intermittent renewable generation. Following a large-signal generation or load disturbance, system frequency is arrested leveraging primary frequency control provided by governor action in synchronous generators. In this work, we propose a framework for distributed energy resources (DERs) deployed in distribution networks to provide (supplemental) primary frequency response. Particularly, we demonstrate how power-frequency droop slopes for individual DERs can be designed so that the distribution feeder presents a guaranteed frequency-regulation characteristic at the feeder head. Furthermore, the droop slopes are engineered such that injections of individual DERs conform to a well-defined fairness objective that does not penalize them for their location on the distribution feeder. Time-domain simulations for an illustrative network composed of a combined transmission network and distribution network with frequency-responsive DERs are provided to validate the approach.

Authors:
 [1]; ORCiD logo [1];  [2];  [3];  [2]
  1. National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)
  2. University of Minnesota
  3. University of British Columbia
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
U.S. Department of Energy, Advanced Research Projects Agency-Energy (ARPA-E)
OSTI Identifier:
1376843
Report Number(s):
NREL/CP-5D00-69113
DOE Contract Number:
AC36-08GO28308
Resource Type:
Conference
Resource Relation:
Conference: Presented at the 2017 American Control Conference (ACC), 24-26 May 2017, Seattle, Washington
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
24 POWER TRANSMISSION AND DISTRIBUTION; distributed energy resources; primary frequency response; virtual power plants; distribution systems

Citation Formats

Dall-Anese, Emiliano, Zhao, Changhong, Guggilam, Swaroop, Chen, Yu Christine, and Dhople, Sairaj. Primary Frequency Response with Aggregated DERs. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.23919/ACC.2017.7963470.
Dall-Anese, Emiliano, Zhao, Changhong, Guggilam, Swaroop, Chen, Yu Christine, & Dhople, Sairaj. Primary Frequency Response with Aggregated DERs. United States. doi:10.23919/ACC.2017.7963470.
Dall-Anese, Emiliano, Zhao, Changhong, Guggilam, Swaroop, Chen, Yu Christine, and Dhople, Sairaj. Mon . "Primary Frequency Response with Aggregated DERs". United States. doi:10.23919/ACC.2017.7963470.
@article{osti_1376843,
title = {Primary Frequency Response with Aggregated DERs},
author = {Dall-Anese, Emiliano and Zhao, Changhong and Guggilam, Swaroop and Chen, Yu Christine and Dhople, Sairaj},
abstractNote = {Power networks have to withstand a variety of disturbances that affect system frequency, and the problem is compounded with the increasing integration of intermittent renewable generation. Following a large-signal generation or load disturbance, system frequency is arrested leveraging primary frequency control provided by governor action in synchronous generators. In this work, we propose a framework for distributed energy resources (DERs) deployed in distribution networks to provide (supplemental) primary frequency response. Particularly, we demonstrate how power-frequency droop slopes for individual DERs can be designed so that the distribution feeder presents a guaranteed frequency-regulation characteristic at the feeder head. Furthermore, the droop slopes are engineered such that injections of individual DERs conform to a well-defined fairness objective that does not penalize them for their location on the distribution feeder. Time-domain simulations for an illustrative network composed of a combined transmission network and distribution network with frequency-responsive DERs are provided to validate the approach.},
doi = {10.23919/ACC.2017.7963470},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {Mon Jul 03 00:00:00 EDT 2017},
month = {Mon Jul 03 00:00:00 EDT 2017}
}

Conference:
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  • Power networks have to withstand a variety of disturbances that affect system frequency, and the problem is compounded with the increasing integration of intermittent renewable generation. Following a large-signal generation or load disturbance, system frequency is arrested leveraging primary frequency control provided by governor action in synchronous generators. In this work, we propose a framework for distributed energy resources (DERs) deployed in distribution networks to provide (supplemental) primary frequency response. Particularly, we demonstrate how power-frequency droop slopes for individual DERs can be designed so that the distribution feeder presents a guaranteed frequency-regulation characteristic at the feeder head. Furthermore, the droopmore » slopes are engineered such that injections of individual DERs conform to a well-defined fairness objective that does not penalize them for their location on the distribution feeder. Time-domain simulations for an illustrative network composed of a combined transmission network and distribution network with frequency-responsive DERs are provided to validate the approach.« less
  • The Grid Friendlymore » $$^\textrm{TM}$$ Appliance~(GFA) controller, developed at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, can autonomously switch off the appliances by detecting the under-frequency events. In this paper, the impacts of curtailing frequency threshold on the performance of frequency responsive GFAs are carefully analyzed first. The current method of selecting curtailing frequency thresholds for GFAs is found to be insufficient to guarantee the desired performance especially when the frequency deviation is shallow. In addition, the power reduction of online GFAs could be so excessive that it can even impact the system response negatively. As a remedy to the deficiency of the current controller design, a different way of selecting curtailing frequency thresholds is proposed to ensure the effectiveness of GFAs in frequency protection. Moreover, it is also proposed to introduce a supervisor at each distribution feeder to monitor the curtailing frequency thresholds of online GFAs and take corrective actions if necessary.« less
  • The electrical frequency of an interconnection must be maintained very close to its nominal level at all times. Large frequency deviations can lead to unintended consequences such as load shedding, instability, and machine damage, among others. Turbine governors of conventional generating units provide primary frequency response (PFR) to ensure that frequency deviations are not significant duringlarge transient events. Increasing penetrations of variable renewable generation, such as wind and solar power, and planned retirements of conventional thermal plants - and thus a reduction in the amount of suppliers with PFR capabilities - causes concerns about a decline of PFR and systemmore » inertia in North America. The capability of inverter-coupled wind generation technologies to contribute toPFR and inertia, if appropriately equipped with the necessary control features, can help alleviate concerns. However, these responses differ from those supplied by conventional generation and inertia, and it is not entirely understood how variable renewable generation will affect the system response at different penetration levels. This paper evaluates the impact of wind generation providing PFRand synthetic inertial response on a large interconnection.« less
  • The Grid Friendlymore » $$^\textrm{TM}$$ Appliance~(GFA) controller, developed at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, was designed for the purpose of autonomously switching off appliances by detecting under-frequency events. In this paper, a new frequency responsive load~(FRL) controller is first proposed by extending the functionality of the original GFA controller. The proposed FRL controller can autonomously switch on (or off) end-use loads by detecting over-frequency (or under-frequency) events through local frequency measurement. Then, a hierarchical decentralized control framework is developed for engaging the end-use loads to provide primary frequency response with the proposed FRL controller. The developed framework has several important features that are desirable in terms of providing primary frequency control. It not only exclusively maintains the autonomous operation of the end-use loads, but also effectively overcomes the stability issue associated with high penetration of FRLs. The simulation results illustrate the effectiveness of the developed hierarchical control framework for providing primary frequency response with the proposed FRL controller.« less
  • Power system frequency needs to be maintained close to its nominal value at all times to avoid machine damage, under-frequency load-shedding and even blackouts. Adequate primary frequency response and secondary frequency response are the primary forces to correct an energy imbalance at the second to minute level. As wind energy becomes a larger portion of the world's energy portfolio, there are greater oppotunities for wind to provide frequency response services. This paper addresses one area of frequency control that has been missing in previous work - the reliabilty impacts and interactions between primary and secondary frequency control. The lack ofmore » a commercially available tools to simulate the interaction of these two responses has limited the energy industry's understanding of when the depletion of primary control reserve will impact the performance of secondary conrol response or vice versa. To investigate this issue, in this paper we develop a multi-area frequency response integration model with combined primary and secondary frequency control capabilities.« less