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Title: Coordinated distribution network control of tap changer transformers, capacitors and PV inverters

Abstract

A power distribution system operates most efficiently with voltage deviations along a feeder kept to a minimum and must ensure all voltages remain within specified limits. Recently with the increased integration of photovoltaics, the variable power output has led to increased voltage fluctuations and violation of operating limits. This study proposes an optimization model based on a recently developed heuristic search method, grey wolf optimization, to coordinate the various distribution controllers. Several different case studies on IEEE 33 and 69 bus test systems modified by including tap changing transformers, capacitors and photovoltaic solar panels are performed. Simulation results are compared to two other heuristic-based optimization methods: harmony search and differential evolution. Finally, the simulation results show the effectiveness of the method and indicate the usage of reactive power outputs of PVs facilitates better voltage magnitude profile.

Authors:
ORCiD logo [1];  [2];  [3]
  1. Istanbul Kemerburgaz Univ. (Turkey)
  2. Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)
  3. Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Istanbul Kemerburgaz Univ. (Turkey); Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability (OE); National Science Foundation (NSF); Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey (TUBITAK) (Turkey)
OSTI Identifier:
1376491
Grant/Contract Number:
AC05-00OR22725; EEC-1041877
Resource Type:
Journal Article: Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Electrical Engineering
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Name: Electrical Engineering; Journal ID: ISSN 0948-7921
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
24 POWER TRANSMISSION AND DISTRIBUTION; smart grid; grey wolf optimization; distributed generation; voltage regulation

Citation Formats

Ceylan, Oğuzhan, Liu, Guodong, and Tomsovic, Kevin. Coordinated distribution network control of tap changer transformers, capacitors and PV inverters. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.1007/s00202-017-0563-x.
Ceylan, Oğuzhan, Liu, Guodong, & Tomsovic, Kevin. Coordinated distribution network control of tap changer transformers, capacitors and PV inverters. United States. doi:10.1007/s00202-017-0563-x.
Ceylan, Oğuzhan, Liu, Guodong, and Tomsovic, Kevin. Thu . "Coordinated distribution network control of tap changer transformers, capacitors and PV inverters". United States. doi:10.1007/s00202-017-0563-x.
@article{osti_1376491,
title = {Coordinated distribution network control of tap changer transformers, capacitors and PV inverters},
author = {Ceylan, Oğuzhan and Liu, Guodong and Tomsovic, Kevin},
abstractNote = {A power distribution system operates most efficiently with voltage deviations along a feeder kept to a minimum and must ensure all voltages remain within specified limits. Recently with the increased integration of photovoltaics, the variable power output has led to increased voltage fluctuations and violation of operating limits. This study proposes an optimization model based on a recently developed heuristic search method, grey wolf optimization, to coordinate the various distribution controllers. Several different case studies on IEEE 33 and 69 bus test systems modified by including tap changing transformers, capacitors and photovoltaic solar panels are performed. Simulation results are compared to two other heuristic-based optimization methods: harmony search and differential evolution. Finally, the simulation results show the effectiveness of the method and indicate the usage of reactive power outputs of PVs facilitates better voltage magnitude profile.},
doi = {10.1007/s00202-017-0563-x},
journal = {Electrical Engineering},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {Thu Jun 08 00:00:00 EDT 2017},
month = {Thu Jun 08 00:00:00 EDT 2017}
}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
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  • Tap-changer transformers are used in a power system to influence the voltage profile as well as the distribution of power flow. The coupling of the two transformers--the main transformer and the tap transformer--establishes a complex power system element. The correct modeling of this device has turned out to be critical for the accurate estimation and calculation of the power system state. This paper introduces an improved model which simulates the behavior at the different tap positions and loading conditions. The paper focuses on the positive sequence system of a regulated connected group consisting of a 3-winding main transformer and amore » 2-winding tap-changer transformer. Model verification against test reports and experiences gained from using the new model in an EMS are documented.« less
  • This paper describes a method developed by Pennsylvania Power and Light Company (PP L) for applying Programmable Logic Controllers (PLCs) to control Tap Change Under Load (TCUL) transformers. Equipment was identified, and a set of software programs developed, to completely replace the existing analog-based TCUL control systems. There is a significant cost savings from this approach, and PP L expects an increase in the reliability of the TCUL controls from this design, as well as fewer operations of the TCUL equipment. Several additional functions and alarms were implemented in the new design which will enhance the operation of these transformers.
  • Efficient management and coordination of distributed energy resources with advanced automation schemes requires accurate distribution system modeling and monitoring. Big data from smart meters and photovoltaic (PV) micro-inverters can be leveraged to calibrate existing utility models. This paper presents computationally efficient distribution system parameter estimation algorithms to improve the accuracy of existing utility feeder radial secondary circuit model parameters. The method is demonstrated using a real utility feeder model with advanced metering infrastructure (AMI) and PV micro-inverters, along with alternative parameter estimation approaches that can be used to improve secondary circuit models when limited measurement data is available. Lastly, themore » parameter estimation accuracy is demonstrated for both a three-phase test circuit with typical secondary circuit topologies and single-phase secondary circuits in a real mixed-phase test system.« less
  • This article describes the design of a contact to prevent problems with voltage regulator contacts known as load tap changing contacts. The new contact needed the following properties: high electrical and thermal conductivity; high thermal capacity; extra low contact resistance; resistance to erosion and oxidation; resistance to sticking or welding; resistance to carbon precipitation. The key element of the design was the development of two proprietary high-silver composition contact interface materials. Each has unique properties that, when used together, satisfy the above requirements. The contacts are used to replace reversing switch contacts, which cause the most maintenance problems.
  • This paper discusses the reverse action that the secondary voltage of a transformer is pulled down when the tap position of on-load tap changer is raised to increase the secondary voltage. A dynamic model of an induction motor is adopted as a load model simulating this king of reverse action during voltage collapse. The transient mechanisms of the reverse action are analyzed by using P-V curves.