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Title: Insulator to metal transition in WO 3 induced by electrolyte gating

Abstract

Tungsten oxide and its associated bronzes (compounds of tungsten oxide and an alkali metal) are well known for their interesting optical and electrical characteristics. We have modified the transport properties of thin WO 3 films by electrolyte gating using both ionic liquids and polymer electrolytes. We are able to tune the resistivity of the gated film by more than five orders of magnitude, and a clear insulator-to-metal transition is observed. To clarify the doping mechanism, we have performed a series of incisive operando experiments, ruling out both a purely electronic effect (charge accumulation near the interface) and oxygen-related mechanisms. We propose instead that hydrogen intercalation is responsible for doping WO 3 into a highly conductive ground state and provide evidence that it can be described as a dense polaronic gas.

Authors:
 [1]; ORCiD logo [2];  [3]; ORCiD logo [4];  [1];  [5];  [1];  [6];  [7];  [8]; ORCiD logo [9]
  1. Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)
  2. Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Nanyang Technological Univ. (Singapore). Division of Physics and Applied Physics, School of Physical and Mathematical Sciences
  3. Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Jozef Stefan Institute (Slovenia)
  4. Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (Switzerland)
  5. Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States)
  6. Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (United States)
  7. Nanyang Technological Univ. (Singapore). Division of Physics and Applied Physics, School of Physical and Mathematical Sciences
  8. Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (Switzerland)
  9. Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Basic Energy Sciences (BES) (SC-22)
OSTI Identifier:
1376146
Report Number(s):
BNL-114087-2017-JA
Journal ID: ISSN 2397-4648; R&D Project: MA509MACA; KC0203020
Grant/Contract Number:
SC0012704
Resource Type:
Journal Article: Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
npj Quantum Materials
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 2; Journal Issue: 1; Journal ID: ISSN 2397-4648
Publisher:
Nature Publishing Group
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; 75 CONDENSED MATTER PHYSICS, SUPERCONDUCTIVITY AND SUPERFLUIDITY

Citation Formats

Leng, X., Pereiro, J., Strle, J., Dubuis, G., Bollinger, A. T., Gozar, A., Wu, J., Litombe, N., Panagopoulos, C., Pavuna, D., and Božović, I.. Insulator to metal transition in WO3 induced by electrolyte gating. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.1038/s41535-017-0039-2.
Leng, X., Pereiro, J., Strle, J., Dubuis, G., Bollinger, A. T., Gozar, A., Wu, J., Litombe, N., Panagopoulos, C., Pavuna, D., & Božović, I.. Insulator to metal transition in WO3 induced by electrolyte gating. United States. doi:10.1038/s41535-017-0039-2.
Leng, X., Pereiro, J., Strle, J., Dubuis, G., Bollinger, A. T., Gozar, A., Wu, J., Litombe, N., Panagopoulos, C., Pavuna, D., and Božović, I.. Mon . "Insulator to metal transition in WO3 induced by electrolyte gating". United States. doi:10.1038/s41535-017-0039-2. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1376146.
@article{osti_1376146,
title = {Insulator to metal transition in WO3 induced by electrolyte gating},
author = {Leng, X. and Pereiro, J. and Strle, J. and Dubuis, G. and Bollinger, A. T. and Gozar, A. and Wu, J. and Litombe, N. and Panagopoulos, C. and Pavuna, D. and Božović, I.},
abstractNote = {Tungsten oxide and its associated bronzes (compounds of tungsten oxide and an alkali metal) are well known for their interesting optical and electrical characteristics. We have modified the transport properties of thin WO3 films by electrolyte gating using both ionic liquids and polymer electrolytes. We are able to tune the resistivity of the gated film by more than five orders of magnitude, and a clear insulator-to-metal transition is observed. To clarify the doping mechanism, we have performed a series of incisive operando experiments, ruling out both a purely electronic effect (charge accumulation near the interface) and oxygen-related mechanisms. We propose instead that hydrogen intercalation is responsible for doping WO3 into a highly conductive ground state and provide evidence that it can be described as a dense polaronic gas.},
doi = {10.1038/s41535-017-0039-2},
journal = {npj Quantum Materials},
number = 1,
volume = 2,
place = {United States},
year = {Mon Jul 03 00:00:00 EDT 2017},
month = {Mon Jul 03 00:00:00 EDT 2017}
}

Journal Article:
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  • We have investigated the validity of percolation model, which is quite often invoked to explain the metal-insulator transition in sodium tungsten bronzes, Na{sub x}WO{sub 3} by photoelectron spectromicroscopy. The spatially resolved direct spectromicroscopic probing on both the insulating and metallic phases of high quality single crystals of Na{sub x}WO{sub 3} reveals the absence of any microscopic inhomogeneities embedded in the system within the experimental limit. Neither any metallic domains in the insulating host nor any insulating domains in the metallic host have been found to support the validity of percolation model to explain the metal-insulator transition in Na{sub x}WO{sub 3}.
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