skip to main content
OSTI.GOV title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: High-temperature oxidation of advanced FeCrNi alloy in steam environments

Abstract

Alloys of iron-chromium-nickel are being explored as alternative cladding materials to improve safety margins under severe accident conditions. Here, our research focuses on non-destructively investigating the oxidation behavior of the FeCrNi alloy “Alloy 33” using synchrotron-based methods. The evolution and structure of oxide layer formed in steam environments were characterized using X-ray diffraction, hard X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, X-ray fluorescence methods and scanning electron microscopy. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that a compact and continuous oxide scale was formed consisting of two layers, chromium oxide and spinel phase (FeCr 2O 4) oxides, wherein the concentration of the FeCr 2O 4 phase decreased from the surface to the bulk-oxide interface.

Authors:
 [1];  [1];  [2];  [2];  [2];  [3];  [1]
  1. Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Nuclear Science and Technology Department
  2. Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). National Synchrotron Light Source II (NSLS-II)
  3. General Electric Global Research, General Electric (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Nuclear Physics (NP) (SC-26)
OSTI Identifier:
1376139
Report Number(s):
BNL-114078-2017-JA
Journal ID: ISSN 0169-4332
Grant/Contract Number:
SC0012704; AC02-98CH10886
Resource Type:
Journal Article: Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Applied Surface Science
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 426; Journal ID: ISSN 0169-4332
Publisher:
Elsevier
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; FeCrNi alloy; Alloy 33; Steam oxidation; XRD; HAXPES; XRF; SEM

Citation Formats

Elbakhshwan, Mohamed S., Gill, Simerjeet K., Rumaiz, Abdul K., Bai, Jianming, Ghose, Sanjit, Rebak, Raul B., and Ecker, Lynne E. High-temperature oxidation of advanced FeCrNi alloy in steam environments. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.1016/j.apsusc.2017.06.318.
Elbakhshwan, Mohamed S., Gill, Simerjeet K., Rumaiz, Abdul K., Bai, Jianming, Ghose, Sanjit, Rebak, Raul B., & Ecker, Lynne E. High-temperature oxidation of advanced FeCrNi alloy in steam environments. United States. doi:10.1016/j.apsusc.2017.06.318.
Elbakhshwan, Mohamed S., Gill, Simerjeet K., Rumaiz, Abdul K., Bai, Jianming, Ghose, Sanjit, Rebak, Raul B., and Ecker, Lynne E. Tue . "High-temperature oxidation of advanced FeCrNi alloy in steam environments". United States. doi:10.1016/j.apsusc.2017.06.318.
@article{osti_1376139,
title = {High-temperature oxidation of advanced FeCrNi alloy in steam environments},
author = {Elbakhshwan, Mohamed S. and Gill, Simerjeet K. and Rumaiz, Abdul K. and Bai, Jianming and Ghose, Sanjit and Rebak, Raul B. and Ecker, Lynne E.},
abstractNote = {Alloys of iron-chromium-nickel are being explored as alternative cladding materials to improve safety margins under severe accident conditions. Here, our research focuses on non-destructively investigating the oxidation behavior of the FeCrNi alloy “Alloy 33” using synchrotron-based methods. The evolution and structure of oxide layer formed in steam environments were characterized using X-ray diffraction, hard X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, X-ray fluorescence methods and scanning electron microscopy. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that a compact and continuous oxide scale was formed consisting of two layers, chromium oxide and spinel phase (FeCr2O4) oxides, wherein the concentration of the FeCr2O4 phase decreased from the surface to the bulk-oxide interface.},
doi = {10.1016/j.apsusc.2017.06.318},
journal = {Applied Surface Science},
number = ,
volume = 426,
place = {United States},
year = {Tue Jul 04 00:00:00 EDT 2017},
month = {Tue Jul 04 00:00:00 EDT 2017}
}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
This content will become publicly available on July 4, 2018
Publisher's Version of Record

Save / Share:
  • Under certain severe accident conditions, the fuel rods of nuclear power plants are exposed to high temperature/pressure steam environments in which the Zr alloy cladding is rapidly oxidized. As alternative claddings, the oxidation resistances of SiC-based materials and stainless steels with high Cr and/or Al additions have been examined from 800-1200 C in high-pressure steam environments. Very low reaction kinetics were observed with alumina-forming FeCrAl alloys at 1200 C while Fe-Cr alloys with only 15-20% Cr were rapidly attacked.
  • High-temperature isothermal steam oxidation kinetic parameters of several ferritic alloys were determined by thermogravimetric analysis. We measured the oxidation kinetic constant (k) as a function of temperature from 900°C to 1200°C. The results show a marked increase in oxidation resistance compared to reference Zircaloy-2, with kinetic constants 3–5 orders of magnitude lower across the experimental temperature range. Our results of this investigation supplement previous findings on the properties of ferritic alloys for use as candidate cladding materials and extend kinetic parameter measurements to high-temperature steam environments suitable for assessing accident tolerance for light water reactor applications.
  • The type of kinetic law, the temperature dependence of rate constants, and the composition of the products of the oxidation of a titanium alloy (C{sub Al} = 5.2%, C{sub V} = 1.2%, C{sub Mo} = 1.1%, where C is a mass fraction) in the dynamic medium of steam at 973-1473 K have been estimated. The effect of the components on the process of oxidation was considered, and an interpretation of the peculiarities of the behavior of the alloy in steam as compared with an air atmosphere was given.
  • A side by side comparison of the oxidation behavior of zirconium alloys with SiC materials and advanced iron-based alloys is provided. Oxidation tests were conducted in steam and steam-hydrogen environments at 800-1350 C and 0.34-2MPa for durations up to 48 hours. Monolithic SiC specimens as well as SiC/SiC composites were examined during the study where the material recession mechanism appeared to be governed by silica layer volatilization at the surface for CVD SiC. A wide set of austenitic and ferritic steels were also examined where a critical Cr content (>20 wt.%) was shown to be necessary to achieve oxidation resistancemore » at high temperatures. SiC materials and alumina-forming ferritic steels exhibited slowest oxidation kinetics; roughly two orders of magnitude lower than zirconium alloys.« less