skip to main content
OSTI.GOV title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: Experimental evidence for dynamic friction on rock fractures from frequency-dependent nonlinear hysteresis and harmonic generation

Authors:
ORCiD logo [1];  [2]; ORCiD logo [3]; ORCiD logo [3];  [2]
  1. Earth and Environmental Sciences Area, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley California USA, Earth and Planetary Science Department, University of California, Berkeley California USA
  2. Earth and Environmental Sciences Area, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley California USA
  3. Earth and Planetary Science Department, University of California, Berkeley California USA
Publication Date:
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
OSTI Identifier:
1375067
Grant/Contract Number:
FC26-05NT42587; AC02-05CH11231
Resource Type:
Journal Article: Publisher's Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Journal of Geophysical Research. Solid Earth
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 122; Journal Issue: 7; Related Information: CHORUS Timestamp: 2018-04-03 10:50:06; Journal ID: ISSN 2169-9313
Publisher:
American Geophysical Union
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English

Citation Formats

Saltiel, Seth, Bonner, Brian P., Mittal, Tushar, Delbridge, Brent, and Ajo-Franklin, Jonathan B. Experimental evidence for dynamic friction on rock fractures from frequency-dependent nonlinear hysteresis and harmonic generation. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.1002/2017JB014219.
Saltiel, Seth, Bonner, Brian P., Mittal, Tushar, Delbridge, Brent, & Ajo-Franklin, Jonathan B. Experimental evidence for dynamic friction on rock fractures from frequency-dependent nonlinear hysteresis and harmonic generation. United States. doi:10.1002/2017JB014219.
Saltiel, Seth, Bonner, Brian P., Mittal, Tushar, Delbridge, Brent, and Ajo-Franklin, Jonathan B. Thu . "Experimental evidence for dynamic friction on rock fractures from frequency-dependent nonlinear hysteresis and harmonic generation". United States. doi:10.1002/2017JB014219.
@article{osti_1375067,
title = {Experimental evidence for dynamic friction on rock fractures from frequency-dependent nonlinear hysteresis and harmonic generation},
author = {Saltiel, Seth and Bonner, Brian P. and Mittal, Tushar and Delbridge, Brent and Ajo-Franklin, Jonathan B.},
abstractNote = {},
doi = {10.1002/2017JB014219},
journal = {Journal of Geophysical Research. Solid Earth},
number = 7,
volume = 122,
place = {United States},
year = {Thu Jun 29 00:00:00 EDT 2017},
month = {Thu Jun 29 00:00:00 EDT 2017}
}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
This content will become publicly available on July 18, 2018
Publisher's Accepted Manuscript

Save / Share:
  • Measurements of nonlinear modulus and attenuation of fractures provide the opportunity to probe their mechanical state. We have adapted a low-frequency torsional apparatus to explore the seismic signature of fractures under low normal stress, simulating low effective stress environments such as shallow or high pore pressure reservoirs. We report strain-dependent modulus and attenuation for fractured samples of Duperow dolomite (a carbon sequestration target reservoir in Montana), Blue Canyon Dome rhyolite (a geothermal analog reservoir in New Mexico), and Montello granite (a deep basement disposal analog from Wisconsin). We use a simple single effective asperity partial slip model to fit ourmore » measured stress-strain curves, and solve for the friction coefficient, contact radius, and full slip condition. These observations have the potential to develop into new field techniques for measuring differences in frictional properties during reservoir engineering manipulations and estimate the stress conditions where reservoir fractures and faults begin to fully slip.« less
  • Nonlinear elastic response in rock is established as a robust and representative characteristic of rock rather than a curiosity. This behavior is illustrated from a variety of experiments conducted over many orders of magnitude in strain and frequency. The evidence leads to a pattern of unifying behavior in rock: (1) Nonlinear response in rock is enormous; (2) the response takes place over a large frequency interval (dc--10{sup 6} Hz at least); (3) the response not only occurs, as is commonly appreciated, at large strains but also at small strains where nonlinear response and the manifestations of this behavior are commonlymore » disregarded. Nonlinear response may manifest itself in a variety of manners, including a nonlinear stress{minus}strain relation (hysteretic/discrete memory), nonlinear dissipation, harmonic generation, and resonant peak shift, all of which are related. The experiments described include: quasistatic stress{minus}strain tests (strains of 10{sup -4}--10{sup -1} at frequencies near dc-1Hz); torsional oscillator experiments (strains of 10{sup {minus}4}--10{sup {minus}7}, frequencies between 0.1 and 100Hz); resonant bar experiments (strains of 10{sup {minus}4}--10{sup {minus}8}, frequencies between 10{sup 3} and 10{sup 4} Hz); and dynamic, propagating wave experiments (strains of 10{sup {minus}6}--10{sup {minus}9}, frequencies between 10{sup 3} and 10{sup 6} Hz). [Work supported by OBES/DOE through the University of California and the Institut Francais du Petrole.]« less
  • The central construct of a new theory of the elastic behavior of consolidated materials is the density in Preisach--Mayergoyz (PM) space. PM space is an abstract space in which the response of the mechanical units in the material to changes in stress state can be tracked. The theory provides a recipe for using quasistatic data to determine {rho}{sub PM}, the density of mechanical units in PM space. This recipe has been applied to quasistatic stress/strain data on three sandstones samples: (a) Berea I, (b) Berea II, and (c) Castlegate. The density of mechanical units {rho}{sub PM} was found for eachmore » sample. From {rho}{sub PM} the dynamic behavior of the samples can be predicted. Using the experimentally determined {rho}{sub PM} for each of the three samples the strain response to complicated stress protocols is predicted and the linear and nonlinear dynamic moduli of the samples are found as a function of pressure. The predictions agree well with experiments that test them.« less
  • Cited by 2
  • Reservoir core measurements can help guide seismic monitoring of fluid-induced pressure variations in tight fractured reservoirs including those targeted for supercritical CO 2 injection. We present the first seismic-frequency ‘room-dry’ measurements of fracture specific shear stiffness, using artificially fractured standard granite samples with different degrees of mating, a well-mated tensile fracture from a dolomite reservoir core, as well as simple roughened polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) surfaces. We have adapted a low-frequency (0.01 to 100 Hz) shear modulus and attenuation apparatus to explore the seismic signature of fractures and understand the mechanics of asperity contacts under a range of normal stress conditions.more » Our instrument is unique in its ability to measure at low normal stresses (0.5 – 20 MPa), simulating 'open' fractures in shallow or high fluid pressure reservoirs. The accuracy of our instrument is demonstrated by calibration and comparison to ultrasonic measurements and low-frequency direct shear measurements of intact samples from the literature. Pressure sensitive film was used to measure real contact area of the fracture surfaces. The fractured shear modulus for the majority of the samples shows an exponential dependence on real contact area. A simple numerical model, with one bonded circular asperity, predicts this behavior and matches the data for the simple PMMA surfaces. The rock surfaces reach their intact moduli at lower contact area than the model predicts, likely due to more complex geometry. Lastly, we apply our results to a Linear-Slip Interface Model to estimate reflection coefficients and calculate shear wave time delays due to the lower wave velocities through the fractured zone. We find that cross-well surveys could detect even well-mated hard rock fractures assuming the availability of high repeatability acquisition systems.« less