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Title: Interlaced zone plate optics for hard X-ray imaging in the 10 nm range

Abstract

Multi-keV X-ray microscopy has been particularly successful in bridging the resolution gap between optical and electron microscopy. However, resolutions below 20 nm are still considered challenging, as high throughput direct imaging methods are limited by the availability of suitable optical elements. In order to bridge this gap, we present a new type of Fresnel zone plate lenses aimed at the sub-20 and the sub-10 nm resolution range. By extending the concept of double-sided zone plate stacking, we demonstrate the doubling of the effective line density and thus the resolution and provide large aperture, single- chip optical devices with 15 and 7 nm smallest zone widths. The detailed characterization of these lenses shows excellent optical properties with focal spots down to 7.8 nm. Furthermore, beyond wave front characterization, the zone plates also excel in typical imaging scenarios, verifying their resolution close to their diffraction limited optical performance.

Authors:
 [1];  [2];  [3];  [3];  [3];  [4];  [4];  [4];  [3]
  1. Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland); Synchrotron SOLEIL, Saint-Aubin (France)
  2. Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland); Univ. of Eastern Finland, Joensuu (Finland)
  3. Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)
  4. Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Lemont, IL (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Basic Energy Sciences (BES) (SC-22); Paul Scherrer Institut, Swiss Light Source
OSTI Identifier:
1374847
Grant/Contract Number:
AC02-06CH11357
Resource Type:
Journal Article: Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Scientific Reports
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 7; Journal ID: ISSN 2045-2322
Publisher:
Nature Publishing Group
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
46 INSTRUMENTATION RELATED TO NUCLEAR SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY; Imaging techniques; X-rays

Citation Formats

Mohacsi, Istvan, Vartiainen, Ismo, Rosner, Benedikt, Guizar-Sicairos, Manuel, Guzenko, Vitaliy A., McNulty, Ian, Winarski, Robert, Holt, Martin V., and David, Christian. Interlaced zone plate optics for hard X-ray imaging in the 10 nm range. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.1038/srep43624.
Mohacsi, Istvan, Vartiainen, Ismo, Rosner, Benedikt, Guizar-Sicairos, Manuel, Guzenko, Vitaliy A., McNulty, Ian, Winarski, Robert, Holt, Martin V., & David, Christian. Interlaced zone plate optics for hard X-ray imaging in the 10 nm range. United States. doi:10.1038/srep43624.
Mohacsi, Istvan, Vartiainen, Ismo, Rosner, Benedikt, Guizar-Sicairos, Manuel, Guzenko, Vitaliy A., McNulty, Ian, Winarski, Robert, Holt, Martin V., and David, Christian. Wed . "Interlaced zone plate optics for hard X-ray imaging in the 10 nm range". United States. doi:10.1038/srep43624. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1374847.
@article{osti_1374847,
title = {Interlaced zone plate optics for hard X-ray imaging in the 10 nm range},
author = {Mohacsi, Istvan and Vartiainen, Ismo and Rosner, Benedikt and Guizar-Sicairos, Manuel and Guzenko, Vitaliy A. and McNulty, Ian and Winarski, Robert and Holt, Martin V. and David, Christian},
abstractNote = {Multi-keV X-ray microscopy has been particularly successful in bridging the resolution gap between optical and electron microscopy. However, resolutions below 20 nm are still considered challenging, as high throughput direct imaging methods are limited by the availability of suitable optical elements. In order to bridge this gap, we present a new type of Fresnel zone plate lenses aimed at the sub-20 and the sub-10 nm resolution range. By extending the concept of double-sided zone plate stacking, we demonstrate the doubling of the effective line density and thus the resolution and provide large aperture, single- chip optical devices with 15 and 7 nm smallest zone widths. The detailed characterization of these lenses shows excellent optical properties with focal spots down to 7.8 nm. Furthermore, beyond wave front characterization, the zone plates also excel in typical imaging scenarios, verifying their resolution close to their diffraction limited optical performance.},
doi = {10.1038/srep43624},
journal = {Scientific Reports},
number = ,
volume = 7,
place = {United States},
year = {Wed Mar 08 00:00:00 EST 2017},
month = {Wed Mar 08 00:00:00 EST 2017}
}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
Publisher's Version of Record

Citation Metrics:
Cited by: 10works
Citation information provided by
Web of Science

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  • Takano et al. report the focusing of 10-keV X-rays to a size of 14.4 nm using a total-reflection zone plate (TRZP). This focal size is at the diffraction limit for the optic's aperture. This would be a noteworthy result, since the TRZP was fabricated using conventional lithography techniques. Alternative nanofocusing optics require more demanding fabrication methods. However, as I will discuss in this Comment, the intensity distribution presented by Takano et al. (Fig. 4 of ref. 1) is more consistent with the random speckle pattern produced by the scattering of a coherent incident beam by a distorted optic than withmore » a diffraction-limited focus. When interpreted in this manner, the true focal spot size is {approx}70 nm: 5 times the diffraction limit. When a coherent photon beam illuminates an optic containing randomly distributed regions which introduce different phase shifts, the scattered diffraction pattern consists of a speckle pattern. Each speckle will be diffraction-limited: the peak width of a single speckle depends entirely on the source coherence and gives no information about the optic. The envelope of the speckle distribution corresponds to the focal spot which would be observed using incoherent illumination. The width of this envelope is due to the finite size of the coherently-diffracting domains produced by slope and position errors in the optic. The focal intensity distribution in Fig. 4 of ref. 1 indeed contains a diffraction-limited peak, but this peak contains only a fraction of the power in the focused, and forms part of a distribution of sharp peaks with an envelope {approx}70 nm in width, just as expected for a speckle pattern. At the 4mm focal distance, the 70 nm width corresponds to a slope error of 18 {micro}rad. To reach the 14 nm diffraction limit, the slope error must be reduced to 3 {micro}rad. Takano et al. have identified a likely source of this error: warping due to stress as a result of zone deposition. It will be interesting to see whether the use of a more rigid substrate gives improved results.« less
  • Soft x-ray zone plate microscopy provides a unique combination of capabilities that complement those of electron and scanning probe microscopies. Tremendous efforts are taken worldwide to achieve sub-10 nm resolution, which will permit extension of x-ray microscopy to a broader range of nanosciences and nanotechnologies. In this paper, the overlay nanofabrication technique is described, which permits zone width of 15 nm and below to be fabricated. The fabrication results of 12 nm zone plates, and the stacking of identical zone patterns for higher aspect ratio, are discussed.
  • A hard x-ray transmission microscope with 30 nm spatial resolution has been developed employing the third diffraction order of a zone plate objective. The microscope utilizes a capillary type condenser with suitable surface figure to generate a hollow cone illumination which is matched in illumination range to the numerical aperture of the third order diffraction of a zone plate with an outmost zone width of 50 nm. Using a test sample of a 150 nm thick gold spoke pattern with finest half-pitch of 30 nm, the authors obtained x-ray images with 30 nm resolution at 8 keV x-ray energy.
  • Cited by 3
  • Here, the feasibility of an off-axis x-ray reflection zone plate to perform wavelength-dispersive spectroscopy, on-axis point focusing, and two-dimensional imaging is demonstrated by means of one and the same diffractive optical element (DOE) at a synchrotron radiation facility. The resolving power varies between 3 × 10 1 and 4 × 10 2 in the range of 7.6 keV to 9.0 keV, with its maximum at the design energy of 8.3 keV. This result is verified using an adjustable entrance slit, by which horizontal (H) and vertical (V) focusing to 0.85 μm(H) and 1.29 μm(V) is obtained near the sagittal focalmore » plane of the astigmatic configuration. An angular and axial scan proves an accessible field of view of at least 0.6 arcmin × 0.8 arcmin and a focal depth of ±0.86 mm. Supported by the grating efficiency of around 17.5% and a very short pulse elongation, future precision x-ray fluorescence and absorption studies of transition metals at their K-edge on an ultrashort timescale could benefit from our findings.« less