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Title: Characterization Report on Fuels for NEAMS Model Validation

Abstract

Nearly 20% of the world’s electricity today is generated by nuclear energy from uranium dioxide (UO 2) fuel. The thermal conductivity of UO 2 governs the conversion of heat produced from fission events into electricity and it is an important parameter in reactor design and safety. While nuclear fuel operates at high to very high temperatures, thermal conductivity and other materials properties lack sensitivity to temperature variations and to material variations at reactor temperatures. As a result, both the uncertainties in laboratory measurements at high temperatures and the small differences in properties of different materials inevitably lead to large uncertainties in models and little predictive power. Conversely, properties measured at low to moderate temperatures have more sensitivity, less uncertainty, and have larger differences in properties for different materials. These variations need to be characterized as they will afford the highest predictive capability in modeling and offer best assurances for validation and verification at all temperatures. This is well emphasized in the temperature variation of the thermal conductivity of UO 2.

Authors:
 [1]
  1. Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Nuclear Energy (NE)
OSTI Identifier:
1374500
Report Number(s):
INL/EXT-16-40062
DOE Contract Number:
AC07-05ID14517
Resource Type:
Technical Report
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
11 NUCLEAR FUEL CYCLE AND FUEL MATERIALS; URANIUM DIOXIDE; NUCLEAR FUELS; THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY; URANIUM; NUCLEAR ENERGY; Characterization Report; Fuels for NEAMS; Model Validation

Citation Formats

Gofryk, Krzysztof. Characterization Report on Fuels for NEAMS Model Validation. United States: N. p., 2016. Web. doi:10.2172/1374500.
Gofryk, Krzysztof. Characterization Report on Fuels for NEAMS Model Validation. United States. doi:10.2172/1374500.
Gofryk, Krzysztof. 2016. "Characterization Report on Fuels for NEAMS Model Validation". United States. doi:10.2172/1374500. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1374500.
@article{osti_1374500,
title = {Characterization Report on Fuels for NEAMS Model Validation},
author = {Gofryk, Krzysztof},
abstractNote = {Nearly 20% of the world’s electricity today is generated by nuclear energy from uranium dioxide (UO2) fuel. The thermal conductivity of UO2 governs the conversion of heat produced from fission events into electricity and it is an important parameter in reactor design and safety. While nuclear fuel operates at high to very high temperatures, thermal conductivity and other materials properties lack sensitivity to temperature variations and to material variations at reactor temperatures. As a result, both the uncertainties in laboratory measurements at high temperatures and the small differences in properties of different materials inevitably lead to large uncertainties in models and little predictive power. Conversely, properties measured at low to moderate temperatures have more sensitivity, less uncertainty, and have larger differences in properties for different materials. These variations need to be characterized as they will afford the highest predictive capability in modeling and offer best assurances for validation and verification at all temperatures. This is well emphasized in the temperature variation of the thermal conductivity of UO2.},
doi = {10.2172/1374500},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = 2016,
month = 9
}

Technical Report:

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  • The goal is for all modeling and simulation tools to be demonstrated accurate and reliable through a formal Verification and Validation (V&V) process, especially where such tools are to be used to establish safety margins and support regulatory compliance, or to design a system in a manner that reduces the role of expensive mockups and prototypes. Whereas the Verification part of the process does not rely on experiment, the Validation part, on the contrary, necessitates as many relevant and precise experimental data as possible to make sure the models reproduce reality as closely as possible. Hence, this report presents amore » limited selection of experimental data that could be used to validate the codes devoted mainly to Fast Neutron Reactor calculations in the US. Emphasis has been put on existing data for thermal-hydraulics, fuel and reactor physics. The principles of a new “smart” experiment that could be used to improve our knowledge of neutron cross-sections are presented as well. In short, it consists in irradiating a few milligrams of actinides and analyzing the results with Accelerator Mass Spectroscopy to infer the neutron cross-sections. Finally, the wealth of experimental data relevant to Fast Neutron Reactors in the US should not be taken for granted and efforts should be put on saving these 30-40 years old data and on making sure they are validation-worthy, i.e. that the experimental conditions and uncertainties are well documented.« less
  • The objective of the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling and Simulation Waste Integrated Performance and Safety Codes (NEAMS Waste IPSC) is to provide an integrated suite of computational modeling and simulation (M&S) capabilities to quantitatively assess the long-term performance of waste forms in the engineered and geologic environments of a radioactive-waste storage facility or disposal repository. To meet this objective, NEAMS Waste IPSC M&S capabilities will be applied to challenging spatial domains, temporal domains, multiphysics couplings, and multiscale couplings. A strategic verification and validation (V&V) goal is to establish evidence-based metrics for the level ofmore » confidence in M&S codes and capabilities. Because it is economically impractical to apply the maximum V&V rigor to each and every M&S capability, M&S capabilities will be ranked for their impact on the performance assessments of various components of the repository systems. Those M&S capabilities with greater impact will require a greater level of confidence and a correspondingly greater investment in V&V. This report includes five major components: (1) a background summary of the NEAMS Waste IPSC to emphasize M&S challenges; (2) the conceptual foundation for verification, validation, and confidence assessment of NEAMS Waste IPSC M&S capabilities; (3) specifications for the planned verification, validation, and confidence-assessment practices; (4) specifications for the planned evidence information management system; and (5) a path forward for the incremental implementation of this V&V plan.« less
  • This summary report contains an overview of work performed under the work package en- titled “FY2016 NEAMS INL-Engineering Scale Fuel Performance (BISON)” A first chapter identifies the specific FY-16 milestones, providing a basic description of the associated work and references to related detailed documentation. Where applicable, a representative technical result is provided. A second chapter summarizes major additional accomplishments, which in- clude: 1) publication of a journal article on solution verification and validation of BISON for LWR fuel, 2) publication of a journal article on 3D Missing Pellet Surface (MPS) analysis of BWR fuel, 3) use of BISON to designmore » a unique 3D MPS validation experiment for future in- stallation in the Halden research reactor, 4) participation in an OECD benchmark on Pellet Clad Mechanical Interaction (PCMI), 5) participation in an OECD benchmark on Reactivity Insertion Accident (RIA) analysis, 6) participation in an OECD activity on uncertainity quantification and sensitivity analysis in nuclear fuel modeling and 7) major improvements to BISON’s fission gas behavior models. A final chapter outlines FY-17 future work.« less
  • Since the events at the Fukushima-Daiichi nuclear power plant in March 2011 significant research has unfolded at national laboratories, universities and other institutions into alternative materials that have potential enhanced accident tolerance when compared to traditional \uo~fuel zircaloy clad fuel rods. One of the potential replacement fuels is uranium silicide (\usi) for its higher thermal conductivity and uranium density. The lower melting temperature is of potential concern during postulated accident conditions. Another disadvantage for \usi~ is the lack of experimental data under power reactor conditions. Due to the aggressive development schedule for inserting some of the potential materials into leadmore » test assemblies or rods by 2022~\cite{bragg-sitton_2014} multiscale multiphysics modeling approaches have been used to provide insight into these materials. \\ \noindent The purpose of this letter report is to highlight the multiscale modeling effort for \usi~fuel as part of the Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling and Simulation (NEAMS) Accident Tolerant Fuel (ATF) High Impact Problem (HIP). This fiscal year two new models for \usi~fuel have been incorporated into the BISON fuel performance code~\cite{Williamson2012} based upon lower length scale simulations using the GRASS-SST rate theory code. The models are briefly described in the following sections.« less