skip to main content
OSTI.GOV title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: The connection between natural gas hydrate and bottom-simulating reflectors

 [1];  [1];  [2];  [3]
  1. School of Earth Sciences, The Ohio State University, Columbus Ohio USA
  2. Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, New Orleans Louisiana USA
  3. Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Sterling Virginia USA
Publication Date:
Sponsoring Org.:
OSTI Identifier:
Grant/Contract Number:
FE0009949; FE0023919
Resource Type:
Journal Article: Publisher's Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Geophysical Research Letters
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 43; Journal Issue: 13; Related Information: CHORUS Timestamp: 2017-10-23 17:42:08; Journal ID: ISSN 0094-8276
American Geophysical Union
Country of Publication:
United States

Citation Formats

Majumdar, Urmi, Cook, Ann E., Shedd, William, and Frye, Matthew. The connection between natural gas hydrate and bottom-simulating reflectors. United States: N. p., 2016. Web. doi:10.1002/2016GL069443.
Majumdar, Urmi, Cook, Ann E., Shedd, William, & Frye, Matthew. The connection between natural gas hydrate and bottom-simulating reflectors. United States. doi:10.1002/2016GL069443.
Majumdar, Urmi, Cook, Ann E., Shedd, William, and Frye, Matthew. 2016. "The connection between natural gas hydrate and bottom-simulating reflectors". United States. doi:10.1002/2016GL069443.
title = {The connection between natural gas hydrate and bottom-simulating reflectors},
author = {Majumdar, Urmi and Cook, Ann E. and Shedd, William and Frye, Matthew},
abstractNote = {},
doi = {10.1002/2016GL069443},
journal = {Geophysical Research Letters},
number = 13,
volume = 43,
place = {United States},
year = 2016,
month = 7

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
Publisher's Version of Record at 10.1002/2016GL069443

Save / Share:
  • Structural parameters of coals were studied in connection with forecasting rock bursts in coal seams. Samples of bituminous coal and anthracite were analysed in order to determine the character of structural change in coal during metamorphism and its connection with gas bearing properties. It was demonstrated that the relationship between the methane in coal and the concentration of paramagnetic centres, which are directly connected with gas formation in the coalification process, is an indication that gas in coal seams can be determined by the intensity of gas formation during metamorphism.
  • The importance of deductive theories in the modern natural sciences built essentially on experiments is briefly discussed. The logical structure of the deductive theories, their axioms, undefined quantities, and realizations is treated in some detail. In all the natural sciences, there is a striving to explain all the various phenomena in nature in terms of a few basic principles, and this {open_quotes}reductionism{close_quotes} leads to a certain amount of unification of these sciences. The chain that goes from biology, over molecular biology, biochemistry, chemistry, and physics to the description of nature in terms of the elementary particles obeying the laws ofmore » modern quantum chemistry is reviewed. Since all the measurements of microcosmos involve an observer, who according to the Copenhagen school experiences the outside universe as a projection on his or her mind through his or her senses, some theoreticians may be inclined to reduce the natural sciences to the human mind as the fundamental (undefined) quantity. However, since the observer is a biological structure, one is also back where one started, and it is evident that one can start the reduction or unification of the natural sciences in any point on this circle (or spiral). Hence, there are many descriptions of the natural sciences and their connections that are possible-as illustrated at this symposium. 2 refs., 2 figs.« less
  • The paper recapitulates some key elements in previously published results concerning exact and complete reconstitution of the field of natural numbers, both as ordinal and as cardinal numbers, from systematic unfoldment of the Fibonacci algorithm. By this natural numbers emerge as Fibonacci 'atoms' and 'molecules' consistent with the notion of Zeckendorf sums. Here, the sub-set of prime numbers appears not as the primary numbers, but as an epistructure from a deeper Fibonacci constitution, and is thus targeted from a 'positive approach'. In the Fibonacci reconstitution of number theory natural numbers show a double geometrical aspect: partly as extension in spacemore » and partly as position in a successive structuring of space. More specifically, the natural numbers are shown to be distributed by a concise 5:3 code structured from the Fibonacci algorithm via Pascal's triangle. The paper discusses possible implications for the more general relation between number theory and geometry, as well as more specifically in relation to hadronic mathematics, initiated by R.M. Santilli, and also briefly to some other recent science linking number theory more directly to geometry and natural systems.« less
  • Hydrates of natural gas exist in nature in the Arctic regions and underneath the sea floor. Worldwide reservoir estimates range as high as 10/sup 7/ trillion ft/sup 3/. Very little information is available about the physical properties of these deposits, thus making difficult their detection by remote geophysical surveys. Reviewed are experimental sonic and resistivity measurements on hydrates, hydrate-bearing sediment, and permafrost. Conclusions indicate that hydrate layers are characterized by anomalously high sonic velocities and resistivities, both of which are functions of the amount of liquid water associated with the hydrates in the rock matrix. An analogy between hydrate-bearing sedimentsmore » and permafrost is used to propose simple quantitative relationships between liquid water content and the electrical resistivities and sonic velocities of the deposits. Electrical and sonic well-logging data are used to substantiate the basic conclusions of this review. 18 references, 6 figures, 2 tables.« less
  • The methane hydrate stability zone beneath Sverdrup Basin has developed to a depth of 2 km underneath the Canadian Arctic Islands and 1 km below sea level under the deepest part of the inter-island sea channels. It is not, however, a continuous zone. Methane hydrates are detected in this zone, but the gas hydrate/free gas contact occurs rarely. Interpretation of well logs indicate that methane hydrate occurs within the methane stability zone in 57 of 150 analyzed wells. Fourteen wells show the methane hydrate/free gas contact. Analysis of the distribution of methane hydrate and hydrate/gas contact occurrences with respect tomore » the present methane hydrate stability zone indicate that, in most instances, the detected methane hydrate occurs well above the base of methane hydrate stability. This relationship suggests that these methane hydrates were formed in shallower strata than expected with respect to the present hydrate stability zone from methane gases which migrated upward into hydrate trap zones. Presently, only a small proportion of gas hydrate occurrences occur in close proximity to the base of predicted methane hydrate stability. The association of the majority of detected hydrates with deeply buried hydrocarbon discoveries, mostly conventional natural gas accumulations, or mapped seismic closures, some of which are dry, located in structures in western and central Sverdrup Basin, indicate the concurring relationship of hydrate occurrence with areas of high heat flow. Either present-day or paleo-high heat flows are relevant. Twenty-three hydrate occurrences coincide directly with underlying conventional hydrocarbon accumulations. Other gas hydrate occurrences are associated with structures filled with water with evidence of precursor hydrocarbons that were lost because of upward leakage.« less