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Title: Halide Perovskites under Pressure: Accessing New Properties through Lattice Compression

Authors:
ORCiD logo [1];  [2]; ORCiD logo [1]
  1. Department of Chemistry, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305, United States
  2. Department of Chemistry, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305, United States; Stanford Institute for Materials and Energy Sciences, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, California 94025, United States
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Basic Energy Sciences (BES) (SC-22)
OSTI Identifier:
1374339
DOE Contract Number:
AC02-76SF00515; DMR 1351538
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: ACS Energy Letters; Journal Volume: 2; Journal Issue: 7
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English

Citation Formats

Jaffe, Adam, Lin, Yu, and Karunadasa, Hemamala I. Halide Perovskites under Pressure: Accessing New Properties through Lattice Compression. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.1021/acsenergylett.7b00284.
Jaffe, Adam, Lin, Yu, & Karunadasa, Hemamala I. Halide Perovskites under Pressure: Accessing New Properties through Lattice Compression. United States. doi:10.1021/acsenergylett.7b00284.
Jaffe, Adam, Lin, Yu, and Karunadasa, Hemamala I. Thu . "Halide Perovskites under Pressure: Accessing New Properties through Lattice Compression". United States. doi:10.1021/acsenergylett.7b00284.
@article{osti_1374339,
title = {Halide Perovskites under Pressure: Accessing New Properties through Lattice Compression},
author = {Jaffe, Adam and Lin, Yu and Karunadasa, Hemamala I.},
abstractNote = {},
doi = {10.1021/acsenergylett.7b00284},
journal = {ACS Energy Letters},
number = 7,
volume = 2,
place = {United States},
year = {Thu Jun 08 00:00:00 EDT 2017},
month = {Thu Jun 08 00:00:00 EDT 2017}
}
  • Here, we report the first high-pressure single-crystal structures of hybrid perovskites. The crystalline semiconductors (MA)PbX 3 (MA = CH 3NH 3 +, X = Br or I ) afford us the rare opportunity of understanding how compression modulates their structures and thereby their optoelectronic properties. Using atomic coordinates obtained from high-pressure single-crystal X-ray diffraction we track the perovskites’ precise structural evolution upon compression. These structural changes correlate well with pressure-dependent single-crystal photoluminescence (PL) spectra and high-pressure bandgaps derived from density functional theory. We further observe dramatic piezochromism where the solids become lighter in color and then transition to opaquemore » black with compression. Indeed, electronic conductivity measurements of (MA)PbI 3 obtained within a diamond-anvil cell show that the material’s resistivity decreases by 3 orders of magnitude between 0 and 51 GPa. The activation energy for conduction at 51 GPa is only 13.2(3) meV, suggesting that the perovskite is approaching a metallic state. Furthermore, the pressure response of mixed-halide perovskites shows new luminescent states that emerge at elevated pressures. We recently reported that the perovskites (MA)Pb(Br xI 1–x) 3 (0.2 < x < 1) reversibly form light-induced trap states, which pin their PL to a low energy. This may explain the low voltages obtained from solar cells employing these absorbers. Our high-pressure PL data indicate that compression can mitigate this PL redshift and may afford higher steady-state voltages from these absorbers. These studies show that pressure can significantly alter the transport and thermodynamic properties of these technologically important semiconductors.« less
    Cited by 48
  • Here, we report the first high-pressure single-crystal structures of hybrid perovskites. The crystalline semiconductors (MA)PbX 3 (MA = CH 3NH 3 +, X = Br or I ) afford us the rare opportunity of understanding how compression modulates their structures and thereby their optoelectronic properties. Using atomic coordinates obtained from high-pressure single-crystal X-ray diffraction we track the perovskites’ precise structural evolution upon compression. These structural changes correlate well with pressure-dependent single-crystal photoluminescence (PL) spectra and high-pressure bandgaps derived from density functional theory. We further observe dramatic piezochromism where the solids become lighter in color and then transition to opaquemore » black with compression. Indeed, electronic conductivity measurements of (MA)PbI 3 obtained within a diamond-anvil cell show that the material’s resistivity decreases by 3 orders of magnitude between 0 and 51 GPa. The activation energy for conduction at 51 GPa is only 13.2(3) meV, suggesting that the perovskite is approaching a metallic state. Furthermore, the pressure response of mixed-halide perovskites shows new luminescent states that emerge at elevated pressures. We recently reported that the perovskites (MA)Pb(Br xI 1–x) 3 (0.2 < x < 1) reversibly form light-induced trap states, which pin their PL to a low energy. This may explain the low voltages obtained from solar cells employing these absorbers. Our high-pressure PL data indicate that compression can mitigate this PL redshift and may afford higher steady-state voltages from these absorbers. These studies show that pressure can significantly alter the transport and thermodynamic properties of these technologically important semiconductors.« less
  • Organolead halide perovskites are a family of hybrid organic-inorganic compounds whose remarkable optoelectronic properties have been under intensive scrutiny in recent years. Here we use inelastic x-ray scattering to study low-energy lattice excitations in single crystals of methylammonium lead iodide and bromide perovskites. Our findings confirm the displacive nature of the cubic-to-tetragonal phase transition, which is further shown, using neutron and x-ray diffraction, to be close to a tricritical point. Lastly, we detect quasistatic symmetry-breaking nanodomains persisting well into the high-temperature cubic phase, possibly stabilized by local defects. These findings reveal key structural properties of these materials, and also bearmore » important implications for carrier dynamics across an extended temperature range relevant for photovoltaic applications.« less
  • Carrier dynamics in methylammonium lead halide (CH3NH3PbI3-xClx) perovskite thin films, of differing crystal morphology, are examined as functions of temperature and excitation wavelength. At room temperature, long-lived (> nanosecond) transient absorption signals indicate negligible carrier trapping. However, in measurements of ultrafast photoluminescence excited at 400 nm, a heretofore unexplained, large amplitude (50%-60%), 45 ps decay process is observed. This feature persists for temperatures down to the orthorhombic phase transition. Varying pump photon energy reveals that the fast, band-edge photoluminescence (PL) decay only appears for excitation >= 2.38 eV (520 nm), with larger amplitudes for higher pump energies. Lower photon-energy excitationmore » yields slow dynamics consistent with negligible carrier trapping. Further, sub-bandgap two-photon pumping yields identical PL dynamics as direct absorption, signifying sensitivity to the total deposited energy and insensitivity to interfacial effects. Together with first principles electronic structure and ab initio molecular dynamics calculations, the results suggest the fast PL decay stems from excitation of high energy phonon modes associated with the organic sub-lattice that temporarily enhance wavefunction overlap within the inorganic component owing to atomic displacement, thereby transiently changing the PL radiative rate during thermalization. Hence, the fast PL decay relates a characteristic organic-to-inorganic sub-lattice equilibration timescale at optoelectronic-relevant excitation energies.« less
  • Cited by 12