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Title: Understanding CO 2 Storage Into Deep Saline Aquifers at the Shenhua Site, Ordos Basin using Simulation-based Sensitivity Analysis


No abstract provided.

 [1];  [2]
  1. Univ. of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States)
  2. Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
OSTI Identifier:
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DOE Contract Number:
Resource Type:
Technical Report
Country of Publication:
United States
58 GEOSCIENCES; Earth Sciences; US-China collaboration CO2 sequestration

Citation Formats

Nguyen, Minh, and Stauffer, Philip H. Understanding CO2 Storage Into Deep Saline Aquifers at the Shenhua Site, Ordos Basin using Simulation-based Sensitivity Analysis. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.2172/1374288.
Nguyen, Minh, & Stauffer, Philip H. Understanding CO2 Storage Into Deep Saline Aquifers at the Shenhua Site, Ordos Basin using Simulation-based Sensitivity Analysis. United States. doi:10.2172/1374288.
Nguyen, Minh, and Stauffer, Philip H. 2017. "Understanding CO2 Storage Into Deep Saline Aquifers at the Shenhua Site, Ordos Basin using Simulation-based Sensitivity Analysis". United States. doi:10.2172/1374288.
title = {Understanding CO2 Storage Into Deep Saline Aquifers at the Shenhua Site, Ordos Basin using Simulation-based Sensitivity Analysis},
author = {Nguyen, Minh and Stauffer, Philip H.},
abstractNote = {No abstract provided.},
doi = {10.2172/1374288},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = 2017,
month = 8

Technical Report:

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  • Underground carbon storage may become one of the solutions to address global warming. However, to have an impact, carbon storage must be done at a much larger scale than current CO{sub 2} injection operations for enhanced oil recovery. It must also include injection into saline aquifers. An important characteristic of CO{sub 2} is its strong buoyancy--storage must be guaranteed to be sufficiently permanent to satisfy the very reason that CO{sub 2} is injected. This long-term aspect (hundreds to thousands of years) is not currently captured in legislation, even if the U.S. has a relatively well-developed regulatory framework to handle carbonmore » storage, especially in the operational short term. This report proposes a hierarchical approach to permitting in which the State/Federal Government is responsible for developing regional assessments, ranking potential sites (''General Permit'') and lessening the applicant's burden if the general area of the chosen site has been ranked more favorably. The general permit would involve determining in the regional sense structural (closed structures), stratigraphic (heterogeneity), and petrophysical (flow parameters such as residual saturation) controls on the long-term fate of geologically sequestered CO{sub 2}. The state-sponsored regional studies and the subsequent local study performed by the applicant will address the long-term risk of the particular site. It is felt that a performance-based approach rather than a prescriptive approach is the most appropriate framework in which to address public concerns. However, operational issues for each well (equivalent to the current underground injection control-UIC-program) could follow regulations currently in place. Area ranking will include an understanding of trapping modes. Capillary (due to residual saturation) and structural (due to local geological configuration) trappings are two of the four mechanisms (the other two are solubility and mineral trappings), which are the most relevant to the time scale of interest. The most likely pathways for leakage, if any, are wells and faults. We favor a defense-in-depth approach, in which storage permanence does not rely upon a primary seal only but assumes that any leak can be contained by geologic processes before impacting mineral resources, fresh ground water, or ground surface. We examined the Texas Gulf Coast as an example of an attractive target for carbon storage. Stacked sand-shale layers provide large potential storage volumes and defense-in-depth leakage protection. In the Texas Gulf Coast, the best way to achieve this goal is to establish the primary injection level below the total depth of most wells (>2,400 m-8,000 ft). In addition, most faults, particularly growth faults, present at the primary injection level do not reach the surface. A potential methodology, which includes an integrated approach comprising the whole chain of potential events from leakage from the primary site to atmospheric impacts, is also presented. It could be followed by the State/Federal Government, as well as by the operators.« less
  • In this report, we present initial estimates of CO 2 injectivity and plume radius for injection of 0.1 MT/yr and 1 MT/yr. Results for 1 and 10 years of injection are used to show how the plume from a single injector well could grow through time for a simplified, idealized system. Most results are for a 2 km deep injection well, while several results from a deeper plume are also presented to demonstrate the impact of changing depth and temperature.
  • A transient, three-dimensional subsurface waste-disposal model has been developed to provide methodology to design and test waste-disposal systems. The model is a finite-difference solution to the pressure, energy, and mass-transport equations. Equation parameters such as viscosity and density are allowed to be functions of the equations' dependent variables. Multiple user options allow the choice of x, y, and z cartesian or r and z radial coordinates, various finite-difference methods, iterative and direct matrix solution techniques, restart options, and various provisions for output display. The addition of well-bore heat and pressure-loss calculations to the model makes available to the ground-water hydrologistmore » the most recent advances from the oil and gas reservoir engineering field...Software Description: The program is written in the FORTRAN programming language for implementation on an IBM 370/155 computer using the OS Version 21.8, HASP-MVT level operating system. 172K bytes of core storage are required to operate the model. (GRA)« less
  • A reactive fluid flow and geochemical transport numerical model for evaluating long-term CO{sub 2} disposal in deep aquifers has been developed. Using this model, we performed a number of sensitivity simulations under CO{sub 2} injection conditions for a commonly encountered Gulf Coast sediment to analyze the impact of CO{sub 2} immobilization through carbonate precipitation. Geochemical models are needed because alteration of the predominant host rock aluminosilicate minerals is very slow and is not amenable to laboratory experiment under ambient deep-aquifer conditions. Under conditions considered in our simulations, CO{sub 2} trapping by secondary carbonate minerals such as calcite (CaCO{sub 3}), dolomitemore » (CaMg(CO{sub 3}){sub 2}), siderite (FeCO{sub 3}), and dawsonite (NaAlCO{sub 3}(OH){sub 2}) could occur in the presence of high pressure CO{sub 2}. Variations in precipitation of secondary carbonate minerals strongly depend on rock mineral composition and their kinetic reaction rates. Using the data presented in this paper, CO{sub 2} mineral-trapping capability after 10,000 years is comparable to CO{sub 2} dissolution in pore waters (2-5 kg CO{sub 2} per cubic meter of formation). Under favorable conditions such as increase of the Mg-bearing mineral clinochlore (Mg{sub 5}Al{sub 2}Si{sub 3}O{sub 10}(OH){sub 8}) abundance, the capacity can be larger (10 kg CO{sub 2} per cubic meter of formation) due to increase of dolomite precipitation. Carbon dioxide-induced rock mineral alteration and the addition of CO{sub 2} mass as secondary carbonates to the solid matrix results in decreases in porosity. A maximum 3% porosity decrease is obtained in our simulations. A small decrease in porosity may result in a significant decrease in permeability. The numerical simulations described here provide useful insight into sequestration mechanisms, and their controlling conditions and parameters.« less
  • This report is the final scientific one for the award DE- FE0000988 entitled “Simulation of Coupled Processes of Flow, Transport, and Storage of CO 2 in Saline Aquifers.” The work has been divided into six tasks. In task, “Development of a Three-Phase Non-Isothermal CO 2 Flow Module,” we developed a fluid property module for brine-CO 2 mixtures designed to handle all possible phase combinations of aqueous phase, sub-critical liquid and gaseous CO 2, supercritical CO 2, and solid salt. The thermodynamic and thermophysical properties of brine-CO 2 mixtures (density, viscosity, and specific enthalpy of fluid phases; partitioning of mass componentsmore » among the different phases) use the same correlations as an earlier fluid property module that does not distinguish between gaseous and liquid CO 2-rich phases. We verified the fluid property module using two leakage scenarios, one that involves CO 2 migration up a blind fault and subsequent accumulation in a secondary “parasitic” reservoir at shallower depth, and another investigating leakage of CO 2 from a deep storage reservoir along a vertical fault zone. In task, “Development of a Rock Mechanical Module,” we developed a massively parallel reservoir simulator for modeling THM processes in porous media brine aquifers. We derived, from the fundamental equations describing deformation of porous elastic media, a momentum conservation equation relating mean stress, pressure, and temperature, and incorporated it alongside the mass and energy conservation equations from the TOUGH2 formulation, the starting point for the simulator. In addition, rock properties, namely permeability and porosity, are functions of effective stress and other variables that are obtained from the literature. We verified the simulator formulation and numerical implementation using analytical solutions and example problems from the literature. For the former, we matched a one-dimensional consolidation problem and a two-dimensional simulation of the Mandel-Cryer effect. For the latter, we obtained a good match of temperature and gas saturation profiles, and surface uplift, after injection of hot fluid into a model of a caldera structure. In task, “Incorporation of Geochemical Reactions of Selected Important Species,” we developed a novel mathematical model of THMC processes in porous and fractured saline aquifers, simulating geo-chemical reactions associated with CO 2 sequestration in saline aquifers. Two computational frameworks, sequentially coupled and fully coupled, were used to simulate the reactions and transport. We verified capabilities of the THMC model to treat complex THMC processes during CO 2 sequestration by analytical solutions and we constructed reactive transport models to analyze the THMC process quantitatively. Three of these are 1D reactive transport under chemical equilibrium, a batch reaction model with equilibrium chemical reactions, and a THMC model with CO 2 dissolution. In task “Study of Instability in CO 2 Dissolution-Diffusion-Convection Processes,” We reviewed literature related to the study of density driven convective flows and on the instability of CO 2 dissolution-diffusion-convection processes. We ran simulations that model the density-driven flow instability that would occur during CO 2 sequestration. CO 2 diffused through the top of the system and dissolved in the aqueous phase there, increasing its density. Density fingers formed along the top boundary, and coalesced into a few prominent ones, causing convective flow that forced the fluid to the system bottom. These simulations were in two and three dimensions. We ran additional simulations of convective mixing with density contrast caused by variable dissolved CO 2 concentration in saline water, modeled after laboratory experiments in which supercritical CO2 was circulated in the headspace above a brine saturated packed sand in a pressure vessel. As CO 2 dissolved into the upper part of the saturated sand, liquid phase density increases causing instability and setting off convective mixing. We obtained good agreement with the laboratory experiments, which were characterized by finger development and associated mixing of dissolved CO 2 into the system. We then varied a wide range of parameters and conceptual models in order to analyze the possibility of convective mixing under different conditions, such as various boundary conditions, and chemical reaction conditions. The CO 2 fingers from different simulations showed great differences as time progressed, caused by permeability heterogeneity. The early time diffusive phenomenon was captured by fine grid resolution, and the permeability heterogeneity affected the pattern of the CO 2 fingers. In addition, the fingers from three-dimensional simulations tended to be larger and flatter than the two-dimensional ones. In task “Implementation of Efficient Parallel Computing Technologies,” we made enhancements and modifications to our code in order to substantially increase the grid size that could be run. We installed and ran it on various platforms, including a multi-core PC and a cluster, and verified the numerical implementation and parallel code using an example problem from the literature. This problem, with a grid size of sixty million, utilized the cluster’s entire memory and all of its processors. In task “Implementation of General Fracture Conceptual Models,” we used the MINC approach, a generalization of the double-porosity concept, to model flow through porous and fractured media. In this approach, flow within the matrix is described by subdividing the matrix into nested volumes, with flow occurring between adjacent nested matrix volumes as well as between the fractures and the outer matrix volume. We generalized Hooke’s law to a thermo-multi- poroelastic medium, and derived from the fundamental equations describing deformation of porous and fractured elastic media a momentum conservation equation for thermo-multi- poroelastic media. This equation is a generalization to multi-poroelastic media of the one derived in Task 3.0 for single porosity media. We describe two simulations to provide model verification and application examples. The first, one-dimensional consolidation of a double-porosity medium, is compared to an analytical solution. The second is a match of published results from the literature, a simulation of CO 2 injection into hypothetical aquifer-caprock systems.« less