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Title: Computed Tomography of Ammonium Perchlorate Composite Propellant.


Abstract not provided.

Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)
OSTI Identifier:
Report Number(s):
DOE Contract Number:
Resource Type:
Resource Relation:
Conference: Proposed for presentation at the IPOC Display Wall in Albuquerque, NM.
Country of Publication:
United States

Citation Formats

Kernen, Burke Lloyd. Computed Tomography of Ammonium Perchlorate Composite Propellant.. United States: N. p., 2016. Web.
Kernen, Burke Lloyd. Computed Tomography of Ammonium Perchlorate Composite Propellant.. United States.
Kernen, Burke Lloyd. Mon . "Computed Tomography of Ammonium Perchlorate Composite Propellant.". United States. doi:.
title = {Computed Tomography of Ammonium Perchlorate Composite Propellant.},
author = {Kernen, Burke Lloyd},
abstractNote = {Abstract not provided.},
doi = {},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {Mon Aug 01 00:00:00 EDT 2016},
month = {Mon Aug 01 00:00:00 EDT 2016}

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  • The thermal decomposition of ammonium perchlorate (AP) and ammonium-perchlorate-based composite propellants is studied using the simultaneous thermogravimetric modulated beam mass spectrometry (STMBMS) technique. The main objective of the present work is to evaluate whether the STMBMS can provide new data on these materials that will have sufficient detail on the reaction mechanisms and associated reaction kinetics to permit creation of a detailed model of the thermal decomposition process. Such a model is a necessary ingredient to engineering models of ignition and slow-cookoff for these AP-based composite propellants. Results show that the decomposition of pure AP is controlled by two processes.more » One occurs at lower temperatures (240 to 270 C), produces mainly H{sub 2}O, O{sub 2}, Cl{sub 2}, N{sub 2}O and HCl, and is shown to occur in the solid phase within the AP particles. 200{micro} diameter AP particles undergo 25% decomposition in the solid phase, whereas 20{micro} diameter AP particles undergo only 13% decomposition. The second process is dissociative sublimation of AP to NH{sub 3} + HClO{sub 4} followed by the decomposition of, and reaction between, these two products in the gas phase. The dissociative sublimation process occurs over the entire temperature range of AP decomposition, but only becomes dominant at temperatures above those for the solid-phase decomposition. AP-based composite propellants are used extensively in both small tactical rocket motors and large strategic rocket systems.« less
  • A study to characterize the low-temperature reactive processes for o-AP and an AP/HTPB-based propellant (class 1.3) is being conducted in the laboratory using the techniques of simultaneous thermogravimetric modulated beam mass spectrometry (STMBMS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results presented in this paper are a follow up of the previous work that showed the overall decomposition to be complex and controlled by both physical and chemical processes. The decomposition is characterized by the occurrence of one major event that consumes up to {approx}35% of the AP, depending upon particle size, and leaves behind a porous agglomerate of AP. Themore » major gaseous products released during this event include H{sub 2}O, O{sub 2}, Cl{sub 2}, N{sub 2}O and HCl. The recent efforts provide further insight into the decomposition processes for o-AP. The temporal behaviors of the gas formation rates (GFRs) for the products indicate that the major decomposition event consists of three chemical channels. The first and third channels are affected by the pressure in the reaction cell and occur at the surface or in the gas phase above the surface of the AP particles. The second channel is not affected by pressure and accounts for the solid-phase reactions characteristic of o-AP. The third channel involves the interactions of the decomposition products with the surface of the AP. SEM images of partially decomposed o-AP provide insight to how the morphology changes as the decomposition progresses. A conceptual model has been developed, based upon the STMBMS and SEM results, that provides a basic description of the processes. The thermal decomposition characteristics of the propellant are evaluated from the identities of the products and the temporal behaviors of their GFRs. First, the volatile components in the propellant evolve from the propellant as it is heated. Second, the hot AP (and HClO{sub 4}) at the AP-binder interface oxidize the binder through reactions that preferentially strip the hydrogen from the binder and yield HCl and H{sub 2}O with some oxidation of the carbon from the binder. Third, the o-AP in the propellant decomposes in the same manner as in neat o-AP. Finally, AP-derived gaseous products interact with other ingredients in the propellant.« less
  • Our previous work in the area of composite explosives has emphasized the necessity of small particle size and intimate contact between fuel and oxidizer in obtaining prompt performance from fuel/oxidizer mixtures. This work has provided a basis for our definition of a composite explosive as ''an explosive system that requires the transport, mixing and subsequent reaction of the initial decomposition products of the system components in order to achieve the predicted detonation performance''. In this paper we present our general working model and present experimental evidence demonstrating the importance of detonation temperature in achieving performance from composite explosives in metalmore » acceleration experiments. 6 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.« less
  • A coupled load frame and x-ray micro-tomography unit was used to observe damage processes occurring within model composite specimens subjected to mechanical loading. These specimens consisted of two tows of glass fiber in the form of bound loops within an epoxy matrix of cylindrical form with 3-mm diameter cross-section. Computed tomography reconstruction was used to investigate internal structure of the specimens under load. This reconstruction revealed internal cracking and progressive failure in several experiments.