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Title: Symmetry-Enforced Line Nodes in Unconventional Superconductors [Nodal-Line Superconductors and Band-Sticking]

Abstract

We classify line nodes in superconductors with strong spin-orbit interactions and time-reversal symmetry, where the latter may include nonprimitive translations in the magnetic Brillouin zone to account for coexistence with antiferromagnetic order. We find four possible combinations of irreducible representations of the order parameter on high-symmetry planes, two of which allow for line nodes in pseudospin-triplet pairs and two that exclude conventional fully gapped pseudospin-singlet pairs. We show that the former can only be realized in the presence of band-sticking degeneracies, and we verify their topological stability using arguments based on Clifford algebra extensions. Lastly, our classification exhausts all possible symmetry protected line nodes in the presence of spin-orbit coupling and a (generalized) time-reversal symmetry. Implications for existing nonsymmorphic and antiferromagnetic superconductors are discussed.

Authors:
 [1];  [2]
  1. Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)
  2. Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Basic Energy Sciences (BES) (SC-22)
OSTI Identifier:
1374185
Grant/Contract Number:
AC02-06CH11357
Resource Type:
Journal Article: Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Physical Review Letters
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 118; Journal Issue: 20; Journal ID: ISSN 0031-9007
Publisher:
American Physical Society (APS)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
75 CONDENSED MATTER PHYSICS, SUPERCONDUCTIVITY AND SUPERFLUIDITY

Citation Formats

Micklitz, T., and Norman, M. R. Symmetry-Enforced Line Nodes in Unconventional Superconductors [Nodal-Line Superconductors and Band-Sticking]. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.118.207001.
Micklitz, T., & Norman, M. R. Symmetry-Enforced Line Nodes in Unconventional Superconductors [Nodal-Line Superconductors and Band-Sticking]. United States. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.118.207001.
Micklitz, T., and Norman, M. R. 2017. "Symmetry-Enforced Line Nodes in Unconventional Superconductors [Nodal-Line Superconductors and Band-Sticking]". United States. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.118.207001.
@article{osti_1374185,
title = {Symmetry-Enforced Line Nodes in Unconventional Superconductors [Nodal-Line Superconductors and Band-Sticking]},
author = {Micklitz, T. and Norman, M. R.},
abstractNote = {We classify line nodes in superconductors with strong spin-orbit interactions and time-reversal symmetry, where the latter may include nonprimitive translations in the magnetic Brillouin zone to account for coexistence with antiferromagnetic order. We find four possible combinations of irreducible representations of the order parameter on high-symmetry planes, two of which allow for line nodes in pseudospin-triplet pairs and two that exclude conventional fully gapped pseudospin-singlet pairs. We show that the former can only be realized in the presence of band-sticking degeneracies, and we verify their topological stability using arguments based on Clifford algebra extensions. Lastly, our classification exhausts all possible symmetry protected line nodes in the presence of spin-orbit coupling and a (generalized) time-reversal symmetry. Implications for existing nonsymmorphic and antiferromagnetic superconductors are discussed.},
doi = {10.1103/PhysRevLett.118.207001},
journal = {Physical Review Letters},
number = 20,
volume = 118,
place = {United States},
year = 2017,
month = 5
}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
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  • Spanning a broad range of physical systems, complex symmetry breaking is widely recognized as a hallmark of competing interactions. This is exemplified in superfluid ³He which has multiple thermodynamic phases with spin and orbital quantum numbers S = 1 and L = 1, that emerge on cooling from a nearly ferromagnetic Fermi liquid. The heavy fermion compound UPt₃ exhibits similar behavior clearly manifest in its multiple superconducting phases. However, consensus as to its order parameter symmetry has remained elusive. Our small angle neutron scattering measurements indicate a linear temperature dependence of the London penetration depth characteristic of nodal structure ofmore » the order parameter. Our theoretical analysis is consistent with assignment of its symmetry to an L = 3 odd parity state for which one of the three thermodynamic phases in non-zero magnetic field is chiral.« less
  • Spanning a broad range of physical systems, complex symmetry breaking is widely recognized as a hallmark of competing interactions. This is exemplified in superfluid ³He which has multiple thermodynamic phases with spin and orbital quantum numbers S = 1 and L = 1, that emerge on cooling from a nearly ferromagnetic Fermi liquid. The heavy fermion compound UPt₃ exhibits similar behavior clearly manifest in its multiple superconducting phases. However, consensus as to its order parameter symmetry has remained elusive. Our small angle neutron scattering measurements indicate a linear temperature dependence of the London penetration depth characteristic of nodal structure ofmore » the order parameter. Our theoretical analysis is consistent with assignment of its symmetry to an L = 3 odd parity state for which one of the three thermodynamic phases in non-zero magnetic field is chiral.« less
  • Based on a two-component Ginzburg-Landau theory, we find a number of interesting behaviors of vortex dynamics in the time-reversal-symmetry-breaking (T-breaking) regime of the parameter space: (i) Only one of the two types of T-breaking vortices is stable against applied currents at intermediate and high fields; (ii) For these dynamically stable vortices, the equilibrium phase transitions at the lower and/or the upper critical fields may be of first order; (iii) The free vortex flow resistivity of the T-breaking vortices is generally nonlinear, and in the case of (ii) there are resistivity discontinuities at the first-order transitions. The phase diagram of themore » T-breaking vortices is presented. {copyright} {ital 1998} {ital The American Physical Society}« less