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Title: Testing for X-Ray–SZ Differences and Redshift Evolution in the X-Ray Morphology of Galaxy Clusters

Abstract

We present a quantitative study of the X-ray morphology of galaxy clusters, as a function of their detection method and redshift. We analyze two separate samples of galaxy clusters: a sample of 36 clusters at $$0.35\lt z\lt 0.9$$ selected in the X-ray with the ROSAT PSPC 400 deg(2) survey, and a sample of 90 clusters at $$0.25\lt z\lt 1.2$$ selected via the Sunyaev–Zel’dovich (SZ) effect with the South Pole Telescope. Clusters from both samples have similar-quality Chandra observations, which allow us to quantify their X-ray morphologies via two distinct methods: centroid shifts (w) and photon asymmetry ($${A}_{\mathrm{phot}}$$). The latter technique provides nearly unbiased morphology estimates for clusters spanning a broad range of redshift and data quality. We further compare the X-ray morphologies of X-ray- and SZ-selected clusters with those of simulated clusters. We do not find a statistically significant difference in the measured X-ray morphology of X-ray and SZ-selected clusters over the redshift range probed by these samples, suggesting that the two are probing similar populations of clusters. We find that the X-ray morphologies of simulated clusters are statistically indistinguishable from those of X-ray- or SZ-selected clusters, implying that the most important physics for dictating the large-scale gas morphology (outside of the core) is well-approximated in these simulations. Finally, we find no statistically significant redshift evolution in the X-ray morphology (both for observed and simulated clusters), over the range of $$z\sim 0.3$$ to $$z\sim 1$$, seemingly in contradiction with the redshift-dependent halo merger rate predicted by simulations.

Authors:
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Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), High Energy Physics (HEP) (SC-25); National Aeronautic and Space Administration (NASA); USDOE Office of Science (SC), Basic Energy Sciences (BES) (SC-22); National Science Foundation (NSF); Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation
OSTI Identifier:
1373892
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1373304
Report Number(s):
FERMILAB-PUB-16-701-AE; arXiv:1609.00375
Journal ID: ISSN 1538-4357; 1485046
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC02-07CH11359; AC02-06CH11357
Resource Type:
Journal Article: Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
The Astrophysical Journal (Online)
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Name: The Astrophysical Journal (Online); Journal Volume: 841; Journal Issue: 1; Journal ID: ISSN 1538-4357
Publisher:
Institute of Physics (IOP)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
79 ASTRONOMY AND ASTROPHYSICS; galaxies: clusters: general; galaxies: clusters: intracluster medium; X-rays: galaxies: clusters

Citation Formats

Nurgaliev, D., McDonald, M., Benson, B. A., Bleem, L., Bocquet, S., Forman, W. R., Garmire, G. P., Gupta, N., Hlavacek-Larrondo, J., Mohr, J. J., Nagai, D., Rapetti, D., Stark, A. A., Stubbs, C. W., and Vikhlinin, A. Testing for X-Ray–SZ Differences and Redshift Evolution in the X-Ray Morphology of Galaxy Clusters. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.3847/1538-4357/aa6db4.
Nurgaliev, D., McDonald, M., Benson, B. A., Bleem, L., Bocquet, S., Forman, W. R., Garmire, G. P., Gupta, N., Hlavacek-Larrondo, J., Mohr, J. J., Nagai, D., Rapetti, D., Stark, A. A., Stubbs, C. W., & Vikhlinin, A. Testing for X-Ray–SZ Differences and Redshift Evolution in the X-Ray Morphology of Galaxy Clusters. United States. doi:10.3847/1538-4357/aa6db4.
Nurgaliev, D., McDonald, M., Benson, B. A., Bleem, L., Bocquet, S., Forman, W. R., Garmire, G. P., Gupta, N., Hlavacek-Larrondo, J., Mohr, J. J., Nagai, D., Rapetti, D., Stark, A. A., Stubbs, C. W., and Vikhlinin, A. Tue . "Testing for X-Ray–SZ Differences and Redshift Evolution in the X-Ray Morphology of Galaxy Clusters". United States. doi:10.3847/1538-4357/aa6db4. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1373892.
@article{osti_1373892,
title = {Testing for X-Ray–SZ Differences and Redshift Evolution in the X-Ray Morphology of Galaxy Clusters},
author = {Nurgaliev, D. and McDonald, M. and Benson, B. A. and Bleem, L. and Bocquet, S. and Forman, W. R. and Garmire, G. P. and Gupta, N. and Hlavacek-Larrondo, J. and Mohr, J. J. and Nagai, D. and Rapetti, D. and Stark, A. A. and Stubbs, C. W. and Vikhlinin, A.},
abstractNote = {We present a quantitative study of the X-ray morphology of galaxy clusters, as a function of their detection method and redshift. We analyze two separate samples of galaxy clusters: a sample of 36 clusters at $0.35\lt z\lt 0.9$ selected in the X-ray with the ROSAT PSPC 400 deg(2) survey, and a sample of 90 clusters at $0.25\lt z\lt 1.2$ selected via the Sunyaev–Zel’dovich (SZ) effect with the South Pole Telescope. Clusters from both samples have similar-quality Chandra observations, which allow us to quantify their X-ray morphologies via two distinct methods: centroid shifts (w) and photon asymmetry (${A}_{\mathrm{phot}}$). The latter technique provides nearly unbiased morphology estimates for clusters spanning a broad range of redshift and data quality. We further compare the X-ray morphologies of X-ray- and SZ-selected clusters with those of simulated clusters. We do not find a statistically significant difference in the measured X-ray morphology of X-ray and SZ-selected clusters over the redshift range probed by these samples, suggesting that the two are probing similar populations of clusters. We find that the X-ray morphologies of simulated clusters are statistically indistinguishable from those of X-ray- or SZ-selected clusters, implying that the most important physics for dictating the large-scale gas morphology (outside of the core) is well-approximated in these simulations. Finally, we find no statistically significant redshift evolution in the X-ray morphology (both for observed and simulated clusters), over the range of $z\sim 0.3$ to $z\sim 1$, seemingly in contradiction with the redshift-dependent halo merger rate predicted by simulations.},
doi = {10.3847/1538-4357/aa6db4},
journal = {The Astrophysical Journal (Online)},
number = 1,
volume = 841,
place = {United States},
year = {Tue May 16 00:00:00 EDT 2017},
month = {Tue May 16 00:00:00 EDT 2017}
}

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