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Title: A worldview of root traits: the influence of ancestry, growth form, climate and mycorrhizal association on the functional trait variation of fine-root tissues in seed plants

Authors:
 [1];  [2];  [2];  [3]
  1. International Center of Tropical Botany, Florida International University, Miami FL 33199 USA, Department of Biological Sciences, Kent State University, Kent OH 44242 USA
  2. Centre d'Ecologie Fonctionnelle et Evolutive, UMR 5175 (CNRS - Université de Montpellier - Université Paul-Valéry Montpellier - EPHE), Montpellier 34293 France
  3. Department of Biological Sciences, Kent State University, Kent OH 44242 USA
Publication Date:
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
OSTI Identifier:
1373826
Grant/Contract Number:
SC0004335
Resource Type:
Journal Article: Publisher's Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
New Phytologist
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 215; Journal Issue: 4; Related Information: CHORUS Timestamp: 2017-08-03 16:00:02; Journal ID: ISSN 0028-646X
Publisher:
Wiley-Blackwell
Country of Publication:
United Kingdom
Language:
English

Citation Formats

Valverde-Barrantes, Oscar J., Freschet, Grégoire T., Roumet, Catherine, and Blackwood, Christopher B. A worldview of root traits: the influence of ancestry, growth form, climate and mycorrhizal association on the functional trait variation of fine-root tissues in seed plants. United Kingdom: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.1111/nph.14571.
Valverde-Barrantes, Oscar J., Freschet, Grégoire T., Roumet, Catherine, & Blackwood, Christopher B. A worldview of root traits: the influence of ancestry, growth form, climate and mycorrhizal association on the functional trait variation of fine-root tissues in seed plants. United Kingdom. doi:10.1111/nph.14571.
Valverde-Barrantes, Oscar J., Freschet, Grégoire T., Roumet, Catherine, and Blackwood, Christopher B. 2017. "A worldview of root traits: the influence of ancestry, growth form, climate and mycorrhizal association on the functional trait variation of fine-root tissues in seed plants". United Kingdom. doi:10.1111/nph.14571.
@article{osti_1373826,
title = {A worldview of root traits: the influence of ancestry, growth form, climate and mycorrhizal association on the functional trait variation of fine-root tissues in seed plants},
author = {Valverde-Barrantes, Oscar J. and Freschet, Grégoire T. and Roumet, Catherine and Blackwood, Christopher B.},
abstractNote = {},
doi = {10.1111/nph.14571},
journal = {New Phytologist},
number = 4,
volume = 215,
place = {United Kingdom},
year = 2017,
month = 4
}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
This content will become publicly available on April 25, 2018
Publisher's Accepted Manuscript

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  • Ecosystem functioning relies heavily on below-ground processes, which are largely regulated by plant fine-roots and their functional traits. However, our knowledge of fine-root trait distribution relies to date on local- and regional-scale studies with limited numbers of species, growth forms and environmental variation. We compiled a world-wide fine-root trait dataset, featuring 1115 species from contrasting climatic areas, phylogeny and growth forms to test a series of hypotheses pertaining to the influence of plant functional types, soil and climate variables, and the degree of manipulation of plant growing conditions on species fine-root trait variation. Most particularly, we tested the competing hypothesesmore » that fine-root traits typical of faster return on investment would be most strongly associated with conditions of limiting versus favourable soil resource availability. We accounted for both data source and species phylogenetic relatedness. We demonstrate that: (i) Climate conditions promoting soil fertility relate negatively to fine-root traits favouring fast soil resource acquisition, with a particularly strong positive effect of temperature on fine-root diameter and negative effect on specific root length (SRL), and a negative effect of rainfall on root nitrogen concentration; (ii) Soil bulk density strongly influences species fine-root morphology, by favouring thicker, denser fine-roots; (iii) Fine-roots from herbaceous species are on average finer and have higher SRL than those of woody species, and N 2-fixing capacity positively relates to root nitrogen; and (iv) Plants growing in pots have higher SRL than those grown in the field. Synthesis. This study reveals both the large variation in fine-root traits encountered globally and the relevance of several key plant functional types and soil and climate variables for explaining a substantial part of this variation. Climate, particularly temperature, and plant functional types were the two strongest predictors of fine-root trait variation. High trait variation occurred at local scales, suggesting that wide-ranging below-ground resource economics strategies are viable within most climatic areas and soil conditions.« less
  • In this study, there is little quantitative information about the relationship between root traits and the extent of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) colonization. We expected that ancestral species with thick roots will maximize AMF habitat by maintaining similar root traits across root orders (i.e., high root trait integration), whereas more derived species are expected to display a sharp transition from acquisition to structural roots. Moreover, we hypothesized that interspecific morphological differences rather than soil conditions will be the main driver of AMF colonization We analyzed 14 root morphological and chemical traits and AMF colonization rates for the first three rootmore » orders of 34 temperate tree species grown in two common gardens. We also collected associated soil to measure the effect of soil conditions on AMF colonization Results Thick-root magnoliids showed less variation in root traits along root orders than more-derived angiosperm groups. Variation in stele:root diameter ratio was the best indicator of AMF colonization within and across root orders. Root functional traits rather than soil conditions largely explained the variation in AMF colonization among species. In conclusion, not only the traits of first order but the entire structuring of the root system varied among plant lineages, suggesting alternative evolutionary strategies of resource acquisition. Understanding evolutionary pathways in below ground organs could open new avenues to understand tree species influence on soil carbon and nutrient cycling.« less
  • Ongoing climate warming will likely perturb vertical distributions of nitrogen availability in tundra soils through enhancing nitrogen mineralization and releasing previously inaccessible nitrogen from frozen permafrost soil. But, arctic tundra responses to such changes are uncertain, because of a lack of vertically explicit nitrogen tracer experiments and untested hypotheses of root nitrogen uptake under the stress of microbial competition implemented in land models. We conducted a vertically explicit 15N tracer experiment for three dominant tundra species to quantify plant N uptake profiles. Then we applied a nutrient competition model (N-COM), which is being integrated into the ACME Land Model, tomore » explain the observations. Observations using an 15N tracer showed that plant N uptake profiles were not consistently related to root biomass density profiles, which challenges the prevailing hypothesis that root density always exerts first-order control on N uptake. By considering essential root traits (e.g., biomass distribution and nutrient uptake kinetics) with an appropriate plant-microbe nutrient competition framework, our model reasonably reproduced the observed patterns of plant N uptake. Additionally, we show that previously applied nutrient competition hypotheses in Earth System Land Models fail to explain the diverse plant N uptake profiles we observed. These results cast doubt on current climate-scale model predictions of arctic plant responses to elevated nitrogen supply under a changing climate and highlight the importance of considering essential root traits in large-scale land models. Finally, we provided suggestions and a short synthesis of data availability for future trait-based land model development.« less
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