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Title: Determining the ion temperature and energy distribution in a lithium-plasma interaction test stand with a retarding field energy analyzer

Authors:
 [1];  [1]; ORCiD logo [1];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [1]
  1. Department of Nuclear Plasma and Radiological Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois 61801, USA
Publication Date:
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
OSTI Identifier:
1373446
Grant/Contract Number:
DEFG02-99ER54515
Resource Type:
Journal Article: Publisher's Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Review of Scientific Instruments
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 88; Journal Issue: 8; Related Information: CHORUS Timestamp: 2018-02-14 12:30:35; Journal ID: ISSN 0034-6748
Publisher:
American Institute of Physics
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English

Citation Formats

Christenson, M., Stemmley, S., Jung, S., Mettler, J., Sang, X., Martin, D., Kalathiparambil, K., and Ruzic, D. N. Determining the ion temperature and energy distribution in a lithium-plasma interaction test stand with a retarding field energy analyzer. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.1063/1.4995601.
Christenson, M., Stemmley, S., Jung, S., Mettler, J., Sang, X., Martin, D., Kalathiparambil, K., & Ruzic, D. N. Determining the ion temperature and energy distribution in a lithium-plasma interaction test stand with a retarding field energy analyzer. United States. doi:10.1063/1.4995601.
Christenson, M., Stemmley, S., Jung, S., Mettler, J., Sang, X., Martin, D., Kalathiparambil, K., and Ruzic, D. N. 2017. "Determining the ion temperature and energy distribution in a lithium-plasma interaction test stand with a retarding field energy analyzer". United States. doi:10.1063/1.4995601.
@article{osti_1373446,
title = {Determining the ion temperature and energy distribution in a lithium-plasma interaction test stand with a retarding field energy analyzer},
author = {Christenson, M. and Stemmley, S. and Jung, S. and Mettler, J. and Sang, X. and Martin, D. and Kalathiparambil, K. and Ruzic, D. N.},
abstractNote = {},
doi = {10.1063/1.4995601},
journal = {Review of Scientific Instruments},
number = 8,
volume = 88,
place = {United States},
year = 2017,
month = 8
}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
This content will become publicly available on August 1, 2018
Publisher's Accepted Manuscript

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  • A retarding potential energy analyzer having 750 nm diameter, self-aligned grid apertures and micron scale grid separation has been fabricated using polycrystalline silicon and silicon dioxide. High resolution in situ measurements of ion velocity distributions have been demonstrated in inductively coupled argon plasmas. Measurement results agree well with those from a macroscopic analyzer. Important differences are observed in the energies of plasma ions when measured with respect to chamber wall versus those measured with respect to the plasma floating potential. Preliminary measurements under rf bias conditions have also been made and results follow the expected trends.
  • A retarding potential energy analyzer having 750 nm diameter, self-aligned grid apertures and micron scale grid separation has been fabricated using polycrystalline silicon and silicon dioxide. High-resolution in situ measurements of ion velocity distributions have been demonstrated in inductively coupled argon plasmas. Measurement results agree well with those from a macroscopic analyzer. Important differences are observed in the energies of plasma ions when measured with respect to chamber wall versus those measured with respect to the plasma floating potential. Preliminary measurements under rf bias conditions have also been made and results follow the expected trends. (c) 1999 American Institute ofmore » Physics.« less
  • This paper presents the development of a magnetized retarding field energy analyzer (MRFEA) used for positive and negative ion analysis. The two-stage analyzer combines a magnetic electron barrier and an electrostatic ion energy barrier allowing both positive and negative ions to be analyzed without the influence of electrons (co-extracted or created downstream). An optimal design of the MRFEA for ion-ion beams has been achieved by a comparative study of three different MRFEA configurations, and from this, scaling laws of an optimal magnetic field strength and topology have been deduced. The optimal design consists of a uniform magnetic field barrier createdmore » in a rectangular channel and an electrostatic barrier consisting of a single grid and a collector placed behind the magnetic field. The magnetic barrier alone provides an electron suppression ratio inside the analyzer of up to 6000, while keeping the ion energy resolution below 5 eV. The effective ion transparency combining the magnetic and electrostatic sections of the MRFEA is measured as a function of the ion energy. It is found that the ion transparency of the magnetic barrier increases almost linearly with increasing ion energy in the low-energy range (below 200 eV) and saturates at high ion energies. The ion transparency of the electrostatic section is almost constant and close to the optical transparency of the entrance grid. We show here that the MRFEA can provide both accurate ion flux and ion energy distribution measurements in various experimental setups with ion beams or plasmas run at low pressure and with ion energies above 10 eV.« less
  • A retarding field energy analyzer designed to measure ion energy distributions impacting a radio-frequency biased electrode in a plasma discharge is examined. The analyzer is compact so that the need for differential pumping is avoided. The analyzer is designed to sit on the electrode surface, in place of the substrate, and the signal cables are fed out through the reactor side port. This prevents the need for modifications to the rf electrode--as is normally the case for analyzers built into such electrodes. The capabilities of the analyzer are demonstrated through experiments with various electrode bias conditions in an inductively coupledmore » plasma reactor. The electrode is initially grounded and the measured distributions are validated with the Langmuir probe measurements of the plasma potential. Ion energy distributions are then given for various rf bias voltage levels, discharge pressures, rf bias frequencies - 500 kHz to 30 MHz, and rf bias waveforms - sinusoidal, square, and dual frequency.« less
  • A compact retarding field analyzer with embedded quartz crystal microbalance has been developed to measure deposition rate, ionized flux fraction, and ion energy distribution arriving at the substrate location. The sensor can be placed on grounded, electrically floating, or radio frequency (rf) biased electrodes. A calibration method is presented to compensate for temperature effects in the quartz crystal. The metal deposition rate, metal ionization fraction, and energy distribution of the ions arriving at the substrate location are investigated in an asymmetric bipolar pulsed dc magnetron sputtering reactor under grounded, floating, and rf biased conditions. The diagnostic presented in this researchmore » work does not suffer from complications caused by water cooling arrangements to maintain constant temperature and is an attractive technique for characterizing a thin film deposition system.« less