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Title: Engineering the lutein epoxide cycle into Arabidopsis thaliana

Abstract

Although sunlight provides the energy necessary for plants to survive and grow, light can also damage reaction centers of photosystem II (PSII) and reduce photochemical efficiency. To prevent damage, plants possess photoprotective mechanisms that dissipate excess excitation. A subset of these mechanisms is collectively referred to as NPQ, or nonphotochemical quenching of chlorophyll a fluorescence. The regulation of NPQ is intrinsically linked to the cycling of xanthophylls that affects the kinetics and extent of the photoprotective response. The violaxanthin cycle (VAZ cycle) and the lutein epoxide cycle (LxL cycle) are two xanthophyll cycles found in vascular plants. The VAZ cycle has been studied extensively, owing in large part to its presence in model plant species where mutants are available to aid in its characterization. In contrast, the LxL cycle is not found in model plants, and its role in photosynthetic processes has been more difficult to define. To address this challenge, we introduced the LxL cycle into Arabidopsis thaliana and functionally isolated it from the VAZ cycle. Using these plant lines, we showed an increase in dark-acclimated PSII efficiency associated with Lx accumulation and demonstrated that violaxanthin deepoxidase is responsible for the light-driven deepoxidation of Lx. Conversion of Lx tomore » L was reversible during periods of low light and occurred considerably faster than rates previously described in nonmodel species. Finally, we present clear evidence of the LxL cycle’s role in modulating a rapid component of NPQ that is necessary to prevent photoinhibition in excess light.« less

Authors:
 [1];  [2]; ORCiD logo [2]
  1. Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Howard Hughes Medical Inst., Dept. of Plant and Microbial Biology
  2. Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Howard Hughes Medical Inst., Dept. of Plant and Microbial Biology; Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Molecular and Integrated Bioimaging Division
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Basic Energy Sciences (BES) (SC-22)
OSTI Identifier:
1373421
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1408465
Grant/Contract Number:
AC02-05CH11231
Resource Type:
Journal Article: Published Article
Journal Name:
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 114; Journal Issue: 33; Journal ID: ISSN 0027-8424
Publisher:
National Academy of Sciences, Washington, DC (United States)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
59 BASIC BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES; 60 APPLIED LIFE SCIENCES; lutein; lutein epoxide; nonphotochemical quenching; photoprotection; xanthophyll cycle

Citation Formats

Leonelli, Lauriebeth, Brooks, Matthew D., and Niyogi, Krishna K. Engineering the lutein epoxide cycle into Arabidopsis thaliana. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.1073/pnas.1704373114.
Leonelli, Lauriebeth, Brooks, Matthew D., & Niyogi, Krishna K. Engineering the lutein epoxide cycle into Arabidopsis thaliana. United States. doi:10.1073/pnas.1704373114.
Leonelli, Lauriebeth, Brooks, Matthew D., and Niyogi, Krishna K. Mon . "Engineering the lutein epoxide cycle into Arabidopsis thaliana". United States. doi:10.1073/pnas.1704373114.
@article{osti_1373421,
title = {Engineering the lutein epoxide cycle into Arabidopsis thaliana},
author = {Leonelli, Lauriebeth and Brooks, Matthew D. and Niyogi, Krishna K.},
abstractNote = {Although sunlight provides the energy necessary for plants to survive and grow, light can also damage reaction centers of photosystem II (PSII) and reduce photochemical efficiency. To prevent damage, plants possess photoprotective mechanisms that dissipate excess excitation. A subset of these mechanisms is collectively referred to as NPQ, or nonphotochemical quenching of chlorophyll a fluorescence. The regulation of NPQ is intrinsically linked to the cycling of xanthophylls that affects the kinetics and extent of the photoprotective response. The violaxanthin cycle (VAZ cycle) and the lutein epoxide cycle (LxL cycle) are two xanthophyll cycles found in vascular plants. The VAZ cycle has been studied extensively, owing in large part to its presence in model plant species where mutants are available to aid in its characterization. In contrast, the LxL cycle is not found in model plants, and its role in photosynthetic processes has been more difficult to define. To address this challenge, we introduced the LxL cycle into Arabidopsis thaliana and functionally isolated it from the VAZ cycle. Using these plant lines, we showed an increase in dark-acclimated PSII efficiency associated with Lx accumulation and demonstrated that violaxanthin deepoxidase is responsible for the light-driven deepoxidation of Lx. Conversion of Lx to L was reversible during periods of low light and occurred considerably faster than rates previously described in nonmodel species. Finally, we present clear evidence of the LxL cycle’s role in modulating a rapid component of NPQ that is necessary to prevent photoinhibition in excess light.},
doi = {10.1073/pnas.1704373114},
journal = {Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America},
number = 33,
volume = 114,
place = {United States},
year = {Mon Jul 31 00:00:00 EDT 2017},
month = {Mon Jul 31 00:00:00 EDT 2017}
}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
Publisher's Version of Record at 10.1073/pnas.1704373114

Citation Metrics:
Cited by: 3works
Citation information provided by
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  • Although sunlight provides the energy necessary for plants to survive and grow, light can also damage reaction centers of photosystem II (PSII) and reduce photochemical efficiency. To prevent damage, plants possess photoprotective mechanisms that dissipate excess excitation. A subset of these mechanisms is collectively referred to as NPQ, or nonphotochemical quenching of chlorophyll a fluorescence. The regulation of NPQ is intrinsically linked to the cycling of xanthophylls that affects the kinetics and extent of the photoprotective response. The violaxanthin cycle (VAZ cycle) and the lutein epoxide cycle (LxL cycle) are two xanthophyll cycles found in vascular plants. The VAZ cyclemore » has been studied extensively, owing in large part to its presence in model plant species where mutants are available to aid in its characterization. In contrast, the LxL cycle is not found in model plants, and its role in photosynthetic processes has been more difficult to define. To address this challenge, we introduced the LxL cycle into Arabidopsis thaliana and functionally isolated it from the VAZ cycle. Using these plant lines, we showed an increase in dark-acclimated PSII efficiency associated with Lx accumulation and demonstrated that violaxanthin deepoxidase is responsible for the light-driven deepoxidation of Lx. Conversion of Lx to L was reversible during periods of low light and occurred considerably faster than rates previously described in nonmodel species. Finally, we present clear evidence of the LxL cycle’s role in modulating a rapid component of NPQ that is necessary to prevent photoinhibition in excess light.« less
  • It is known that photosynthetic organisms use various photoprotective mechanisms to dissipate excess photoexcitation as heat in a process called nonphotochemical quenching (NPQ). Regulation of NPQ allows for a rapid response to changes in light intensity and in vascular plants, is primarily triggered by a pH gradient across the thylakoid membrane (ΔpH). The response is mediated by the PsbS protein and various xanthophylls. Time-correlated single-photon counting (TCSPC) measurements were performed on Arabidopsis thaliana to quantify the dependence of the response of NPQ to changes in light intensity on the presence and accumulation of zeaxanthin and lutein. Measurements were performed onmore » WT and mutant plants deficient in one or both of the xanthophylls as well as a transgenic line that accumulates lutein via an engineered lutein epoxide cycle. Changes in the response of NPQ to light acclimation in WT and mutant plants were observed between two successive light acclimation cycles, suggesting that the character of the rapid and reversible response of NPQ in fully dark-acclimated plants is substantially different from in conditions plants are likely to experience caused by changes in light intensity during daylight. Mathematical models of the response of zeaxanthin- and lutein-dependent reversible NPQ were constructed that accurately describe the observed differences between the light acclimation periods. Finally, the WT response of NPQ was reconstructed from isolated components present in mutant plants with a single common scaling factor, which enabled deconvolution of the relative contributions of zeaxanthin- and lutein-dependent NPQ.« less
    Cited by 3
  • It is known that photosynthetic organisms use various photoprotective mechanisms to dissipate excess photoexcitation as heat in a process called nonphotochemical quenching (NPQ). Regulation of NPQ allows for a rapid response to changes in light intensity and in vascular plants, is primarily triggered by a pH gradient across the thylakoid membrane (ΔpH). The response is mediated by the PsbS protein and various xanthophylls. Time-correlated single-photon counting (TCSPC) measurements were performed on Arabidopsis thaliana to quantify the dependence of the response of NPQ to changes in light intensity on the presence and accumulation of zeaxanthin and lutein. Measurements were performed onmore » WT and mutant plants deficient in one or both of the xanthophylls as well as a transgenic line that accumulates lutein via an engineered lutein epoxide cycle. Changes in the response of NPQ to light acclimation in WT and mutant plants were observed between two successive light acclimation cycles, suggesting that the character of the rapid and reversible response of NPQ in fully dark-acclimated plants is substantially different from in conditions plants are likely to experience caused by changes in light intensity during daylight. Mathematical models of the response of zeaxanthin- and lutein-dependent reversible NPQ were constructed that accurately describe the observed differences between the light acclimation periods. Finally, the WT response of NPQ was reconstructed from isolated components present in mutant plants with a single common scaling factor, which enabled deconvolution of the relative contributions of zeaxanthin- and lutein-dependent NPQ.« less
    Cited by 3
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