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Title: Modeling the influence of nozzle-generated turbulence on diesel sprays

Abstract

The physical mechanisms governing spray breakup in direct injection engines, such as aerodynamic induced instabilities and nozzle-generated cavitation and turbulence, are not well understood due to the experimental and computational limitations in resolving these processes. Recent x-ray and visible extinction measurements have been con-ducted with a targeted interest in the spray formation region in order to characterize the distribution of droplet sizes throughout the spray. Detailed analysis of these measurements shows promise of yielding insight into likely mechanisms governing atomization, which can inform the improvement of spray models for engine computational fluid dynamic (CFD) codes. In order to investigate potential atomization mechanisms, we employ a joint experimental and computational approach to characterize the structure of the spray formation region using the Engine Combustion Network Spray D injector. X-ray tomography, radiography and ultra-small angle x-ray scattering measurements conducted at the Advanced Photon Source at Argonne National Laboratory quantify the injector geometry, liquid fuel mass and Sauter mean diameter (SMD) distributions under non-vaporizing conditions. Diffused back-illumination imaging measurements, conducted at the Georgia Institute of Technology, characterize the asymmetry of the spray structure. The selected range of injection pressures (50 – 150 MPa) and ambient densities (1.2 – 22.8 kg/m3) allow for themore » influence of aerodynamic forces on the spray to be studied in a controlled and systematic manner, while isolating the atomization process from the effects of vaporization. In comparison to high ambient density conditions, the spray is observed to be more asymmetric at low ambient density conditions. Although several mechanisms may cause asymmetries in the nozzle exit flow conditions and ultimately the spray distribution, irregularities in the internal nozzle geometry were identified, suggesting an increased sensitivity of the spray structure to internal nozzle surface finish imperfections at such conditions. The presence of these asymmetries may influence the ability to interpret line-of-sight measurements and their derived SMD values and trends from a single viewing angle of the spray. With this consideration in mind, the measured local sensitivities to ambient density suggest that for ambient densities less than 2.4 kg/m3, aerodynamic effects are likely suppressed, allowing the influence of turbulent-induced breakup to be isolated. In concert with the experimental measurements, we utilize three-dimensional, CFD Lagrangian-Eulerian spray simulations in CONVERGE to evaluate the details of the predicted spray structure. In particular, we compare measured and predicted sensitivities of the SMD distribution to changes in injection and ambient conditions from three different atomization models, namely Kelvin Helmholtz (KH), KH Aerodynamics Cavitation Turbulence (KH-ACT), and the newly developed KH-Faeth hybrid model. While none of the existing hybrid spray models were able to replicate the experimentally observed sensitivities, it was found that the scales characterizing the KH-Faeth model show promise of capturing the experimentally observed trends if the effects of secondary droplet breakup are neglected. These results inform recommendations for future experiments and computational studies that can guide the development of an improved spray breakup model.« less

Authors:
; ; ; ; ; ; ;
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Vehicle Technologies Office (EE-3V)
OSTI Identifier:
1373295
Report Number(s):
DOE-GATECH-0007333
DOE Contract Number:
EE0007333
Resource Type:
Conference
Resource Relation:
Conference: 29th Annual Conference of the Institute for Liquid Atomization and Spraying Systems (ILASS)-Americas Conference, Atlanta, GA (United States), May 2017
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
33 ADVANCED PROPULSION SYSTEMS

Citation Formats

Magnotti, G M, Matusik, K E, Duke, D J, Knox, B W, Martinez, G L, Powell, C F, Kastengren, A L, and Genzale, C L. Modeling the influence of nozzle-generated turbulence on diesel sprays. United States: N. p., 2017. Web.
Magnotti, G M, Matusik, K E, Duke, D J, Knox, B W, Martinez, G L, Powell, C F, Kastengren, A L, & Genzale, C L. Modeling the influence of nozzle-generated turbulence on diesel sprays. United States.
Magnotti, G M, Matusik, K E, Duke, D J, Knox, B W, Martinez, G L, Powell, C F, Kastengren, A L, and Genzale, C L. Thu . "Modeling the influence of nozzle-generated turbulence on diesel sprays". United States. doi:. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1373295.
@article{osti_1373295,
title = {Modeling the influence of nozzle-generated turbulence on diesel sprays},
author = {Magnotti, G M and Matusik, K E and Duke, D J and Knox, B W and Martinez, G L and Powell, C F and Kastengren, A L and Genzale, C L},
abstractNote = {The physical mechanisms governing spray breakup in direct injection engines, such as aerodynamic induced instabilities and nozzle-generated cavitation and turbulence, are not well understood due to the experimental and computational limitations in resolving these processes. Recent x-ray and visible extinction measurements have been con-ducted with a targeted interest in the spray formation region in order to characterize the distribution of droplet sizes throughout the spray. Detailed analysis of these measurements shows promise of yielding insight into likely mechanisms governing atomization, which can inform the improvement of spray models for engine computational fluid dynamic (CFD) codes. In order to investigate potential atomization mechanisms, we employ a joint experimental and computational approach to characterize the structure of the spray formation region using the Engine Combustion Network Spray D injector. X-ray tomography, radiography and ultra-small angle x-ray scattering measurements conducted at the Advanced Photon Source at Argonne National Laboratory quantify the injector geometry, liquid fuel mass and Sauter mean diameter (SMD) distributions under non-vaporizing conditions. Diffused back-illumination imaging measurements, conducted at the Georgia Institute of Technology, characterize the asymmetry of the spray structure. The selected range of injection pressures (50 – 150 MPa) and ambient densities (1.2 – 22.8 kg/m3) allow for the influence of aerodynamic forces on the spray to be studied in a controlled and systematic manner, while isolating the atomization process from the effects of vaporization. In comparison to high ambient density conditions, the spray is observed to be more asymmetric at low ambient density conditions. Although several mechanisms may cause asymmetries in the nozzle exit flow conditions and ultimately the spray distribution, irregularities in the internal nozzle geometry were identified, suggesting an increased sensitivity of the spray structure to internal nozzle surface finish imperfections at such conditions. The presence of these asymmetries may influence the ability to interpret line-of-sight measurements and their derived SMD values and trends from a single viewing angle of the spray. With this consideration in mind, the measured local sensitivities to ambient density suggest that for ambient densities less than 2.4 kg/m3, aerodynamic effects are likely suppressed, allowing the influence of turbulent-induced breakup to be isolated. In concert with the experimental measurements, we utilize three-dimensional, CFD Lagrangian-Eulerian spray simulations in CONVERGE to evaluate the details of the predicted spray structure. In particular, we compare measured and predicted sensitivities of the SMD distribution to changes in injection and ambient conditions from three different atomization models, namely Kelvin Helmholtz (KH), KH Aerodynamics Cavitation Turbulence (KH-ACT), and the newly developed KH-Faeth hybrid model. While none of the existing hybrid spray models were able to replicate the experimentally observed sensitivities, it was found that the scales characterizing the KH-Faeth model show promise of capturing the experimentally observed trends if the effects of secondary droplet breakup are neglected. These results inform recommendations for future experiments and computational studies that can guide the development of an improved spray breakup model.},
doi = {},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {Thu May 18 00:00:00 EDT 2017},
month = {Thu May 18 00:00:00 EDT 2017}
}

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