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Title: Technoeconomic Optimization of Waste Heat Driven Forward Osmosis for Flue Gas Desulfurization Wastewater Treatment

Abstract

With the Environmental Protection Agency’s recent Effluent Limitation Guidelines for Steam Electric Generators, power plants are having to install and operate new wastewater technologies. Many plants are evaluating desalination technologies as possible compliance options. However, the desalination technologies under review that can reduce wastewater volume or treat to a zero-liquid discharges standard have a significant energy penalty to the plant. Waste heat, available from the exhaust gas or cooling water from coal-fired power plants, offers an opportunity to drive wastewater treatment using thermal desalination technologies. One such technology is forward osmosis (FO). Forward osmosis utilizes an osmotic pressure gradient to passively pull water from a saline or wastewater stream across a semi-permeable membrane and into a more concentrated draw solution. This diluted draw solution is then fed into a distillation column, where the addition of low temperature waste heat can drive the separation to produce a reconcentrated draw solution and treated water for internal plant reuse. The use of low-temperature waste heat decouples water treatment from electricity production and eliminates the link between reducing water pollution and increasing air emissions from auxiliary electricity generation. In order to evaluate the feasibility of waste heat driven FO, we first build a modelmore » of an FO system for flue gas desulfurization (FGD) wastewater treatment at coal-fired power plants. This model includes the FO membrane module, the distillation column for draw solution recovery, and waste heat recovery from the exhaust gas. We then add a costing model to account for capital and operating costs of the forward osmosis system. We use this techno-economic model to optimize waste heat driven FO for the treatment of FGD wastewater. We apply this model to three case studies: the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) 550 MW model coal fired power plant without carbon capture and sequestration, the NETL 550 MW model coal fired power plant with carbon capture and sequestration, and Plant Bowen in Eularhee, Georgia. For each case, we identify the design that minimizes the cost of wastewater treatment given the safely recoverable waste heat. We benchmark the cost minimum waste-heat forward osmosis solutions to two conventional options that rely on electricity, reverse osmosis and mechanical vapor recompression. Furthermore, we quantify the environmental damages from the emissions of carbon dioxide and criteria air pollutants for each treatment option. With this information we can assess the trade-offs between treatment costs, energy consumption, and air emissions between the treatment options.« less

Authors:
ORCiD logo [1];  [1]; ORCiD logo [1]
  1. Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Fossil Energy (FE)
OSTI Identifier:
1373283
Report Number(s):
DOE-CMU-24008
DOE Contract Number:  
FE0024008
Resource Type:
Conference
Resource Relation:
Conference: American Society of Mechanical Engineers 2017 Power and Energy Conference , Charlotte, NC (United States), 26-29 Jun 2017
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
20 FOSSIL-FUELED POWER PLANTS

Citation Formats

Gingerich, Daniel B, Bartholomew, Timothy V, and Mauter, Meagan S. Technoeconomic Optimization of Waste Heat Driven Forward Osmosis for Flue Gas Desulfurization Wastewater Treatment. United States: N. p., 2017. Web.
Gingerich, Daniel B, Bartholomew, Timothy V, & Mauter, Meagan S. Technoeconomic Optimization of Waste Heat Driven Forward Osmosis for Flue Gas Desulfurization Wastewater Treatment. United States.
Gingerich, Daniel B, Bartholomew, Timothy V, and Mauter, Meagan S. Mon . "Technoeconomic Optimization of Waste Heat Driven Forward Osmosis for Flue Gas Desulfurization Wastewater Treatment". United States. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1373283.
@article{osti_1373283,
title = {Technoeconomic Optimization of Waste Heat Driven Forward Osmosis for Flue Gas Desulfurization Wastewater Treatment},
author = {Gingerich, Daniel B and Bartholomew, Timothy V and Mauter, Meagan S},
abstractNote = {With the Environmental Protection Agency’s recent Effluent Limitation Guidelines for Steam Electric Generators, power plants are having to install and operate new wastewater technologies. Many plants are evaluating desalination technologies as possible compliance options. However, the desalination technologies under review that can reduce wastewater volume or treat to a zero-liquid discharges standard have a significant energy penalty to the plant. Waste heat, available from the exhaust gas or cooling water from coal-fired power plants, offers an opportunity to drive wastewater treatment using thermal desalination technologies. One such technology is forward osmosis (FO). Forward osmosis utilizes an osmotic pressure gradient to passively pull water from a saline or wastewater stream across a semi-permeable membrane and into a more concentrated draw solution. This diluted draw solution is then fed into a distillation column, where the addition of low temperature waste heat can drive the separation to produce a reconcentrated draw solution and treated water for internal plant reuse. The use of low-temperature waste heat decouples water treatment from electricity production and eliminates the link between reducing water pollution and increasing air emissions from auxiliary electricity generation. In order to evaluate the feasibility of waste heat driven FO, we first build a model of an FO system for flue gas desulfurization (FGD) wastewater treatment at coal-fired power plants. This model includes the FO membrane module, the distillation column for draw solution recovery, and waste heat recovery from the exhaust gas. We then add a costing model to account for capital and operating costs of the forward osmosis system. We use this techno-economic model to optimize waste heat driven FO for the treatment of FGD wastewater. We apply this model to three case studies: the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) 550 MW model coal fired power plant without carbon capture and sequestration, the NETL 550 MW model coal fired power plant with carbon capture and sequestration, and Plant Bowen in Eularhee, Georgia. For each case, we identify the design that minimizes the cost of wastewater treatment given the safely recoverable waste heat. We benchmark the cost minimum waste-heat forward osmosis solutions to two conventional options that rely on electricity, reverse osmosis and mechanical vapor recompression. Furthermore, we quantify the environmental damages from the emissions of carbon dioxide and criteria air pollutants for each treatment option. With this information we can assess the trade-offs between treatment costs, energy consumption, and air emissions between the treatment options.},
doi = {},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {2017},
month = {6}
}

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