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Title: Hydrogen Isotope Investigations in Metals.


Abstract not provided.

Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)
OSTI Identifier:
Report Number(s):
DOE Contract Number:
Resource Type:
Resource Relation:
Conference: Proposed for presentation at the Intern Symposium held July 27, 2016 in Livermore, CA.
Country of Publication:
United States

Citation Formats

Chao, Paul, and Rick Karnesky. Hydrogen Isotope Investigations in Metals.. United States: N. p., 2016. Web.
Chao, Paul, & Rick Karnesky. Hydrogen Isotope Investigations in Metals.. United States.
Chao, Paul, and Rick Karnesky. 2016. "Hydrogen Isotope Investigations in Metals.". United States. doi:.
title = {Hydrogen Isotope Investigations in Metals.},
author = {Chao, Paul and Rick Karnesky},
abstractNote = {Abstract not provided.},
doi = {},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = 2016,
month = 7

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  • A technique is reviewed which has the capability of investigating the interaction of hydrogen with metals on an atomic scale so that the initial phases of hydrogen interaction may be studied directly. Known as Imaging Atom-Probe Spectroscopy (IAPS) this technique combines the ability of the low-temperature Field-Ion Microscope (FIM) to image a metal surface in atomic resolution, and the single atom detection capability of a time-of-flight mass spectrometer to detect all surface species, including hydrogen.
  • The recycling of hydrogen isotopes (H, D and T) from the first wall material in a fusion device, as well as its tritium inventory and permeation characteristics will depend to a great deal on the surface properties of the material under consideration. Historically, the surface of the first wall was initially composed of such metals as stainless steel and nickel (Ni, the main constituent of Inconel) because of their good outgassing properties as vacuum vessel components. Then graphite and beryllium (Be) were favored due to their low Z properties. Presently, high Z refractory metals, molybdenum (Mo) and tungsten (W), aremore » also being tested in the devices with the hope that control of the boundary plasma would reduce the incident energy low enough to prevent sputtering. Furthermore, vanadium (V) and its alloys are considered for DEMO reactors for their low activation. Or niobium (Nb) and tantalum (Ta) are potentially suitable for super-permeable membrane for separation and purification of hydrogen isotopes in the exhaust gas.« less
  • Stable isotope ratio measurements for carbon (C) and chlorine (Cl) can be used to elucidate the processes affecting transformation and transportation of chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons (CAHs) in the environment. Methods recently developed in our laboratory for isotopic analysis of CAHs have been applied to laboratory measurements of the kinetic isotope effects associated with aerobic degradation of dichloromethane (DCM) and with both anaerobic and aerobic cometabolic degradation of trichlomethene (TCE) in batch and column microbial cultures. These experimental determinations of fractionation factors are crucial for understanding the behavior of CAHs in complex natural systems, where the extent of biotransformation can bemore » masked by dispersion and volatilization. We have also performed laboratory investigations of kinetic isotope effects accompanying evaporation of CAHs, as well as field investigations of natural attenuation and in situ remediation of CAHs in a number of contaminated shallow aquifers at sites operated by the federal government and the private sector.« less
  • In the present work, conifer lignin samples that have been subjected to coalification to varying degrees have been examined by solid-state {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy to monitor chemical changes associated with their thermal maturation. The results are compared with similar data taken for eight Argonne Premium coals. In parallel experiments, a synthetic sample of (methoxy-{sup 13}C) lignin and m-(methoxy-{sup 13}C) toluene have been coalified under similar conditions and have been analyzed by {sup 13}C NMR. 9 refs., 4 figs.
  • The separation performance of tritium by the thermal diffusion method with low inventory was simulated as an alternative method to the cryogenic distillation in Fusion Fuel Cycle. The separation performance of thermal diffusion method was evaluated by the ternary transport equations with isotope exchange reaction. In this paper, the results for HT {minus} H{sub 2} system, show the isotope exchange reaction, H{sub 2} + T{sub 2} = 2HT, plays and important role in the separation performance of tritium, even in a trace level of tritium.