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Title: Areal-Averaged Spectral Surface Albedo in an Atlantic Coastal Area: Estimation from Ground-Based Transmission

Abstract

Tower-based data combined with high-resolution satellite products have been used to produce surface albedo at various spatial scales over land. Because tower-based albedo data are available at only a few sites, surface albedos using these combined data are spatially limited. Moreover, tower-based albedo data are not representative of highly heterogeneous regions. To produce areal-averaged and spectrally-resolved surface albedo for regions with various degrees of surface heterogeneity, we have developed a transmission-based retrieval and demonstrated its feasibility for relatively homogeneous land surfaces. Here we demonstrate its feasibility for a highly heterogeneous coastal region. We use the atmospheric transmission measured during a 19-month period (June 2009 – December 2010) by a ground-based Multi-Filter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (MFRSR) at five wavelengths (0.415, 0.5, 0.615, 0.673 and 0.87 µm) at the Department of Energy’s Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Mobile Facility (AMF) site located on Graciosa Island. We compare the MFRSR-retrieved areal-averaged surface albedo with albedo derived from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) observations, and also a composite-based albedo. Lastly, we demonstrate that these three methods produce similar spectral signatures of surface albedo; however, the MFRSR-retrieved albedo, is higher on average (≤0.04) than the MODIS-based areal-averaged surface albedo and the largest difference occurs in winter.

Authors:
 [1];  [2];  [1]; ORCiD logo [1];  [1];  [3]
  1. Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)
  2. Univ. of Nevada, Reno, NV (United States)
  3. Science Systems and Applications, Inc., Hampton, VA (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
OSTI Identifier:
1372970
Report Number(s):
PNNL-SA-124561
Journal ID: ISSN 2073-4433; ATMOCZ; KP1704010; KP1701000
Grant/Contract Number:
AC05-76RL01830
Resource Type:
Journal Article: Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Atmosphere (Basel)
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Name: Atmosphere (Basel); Journal Volume: 8; Journal Issue: 8; Journal ID: ISSN 2073-4433
Publisher:
MDPI
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
54 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES; Multi-Filter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (MFRSR); Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) observations; atmospheric transmission; areal-averaged surface albedo; spectral and seasonal variability; Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program Mobile Facility (AMF); coastal region; Graciosa Island; Azores

Citation Formats

Kassianov, Evgueni, Barnard, James, Flynn, Connor, Riihimaki, Laura, Berg, Larry K., and Rutan, David A.. Areal-Averaged Spectral Surface Albedo in an Atlantic Coastal Area: Estimation from Ground-Based Transmission. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.3390/atmos8070123.
Kassianov, Evgueni, Barnard, James, Flynn, Connor, Riihimaki, Laura, Berg, Larry K., & Rutan, David A.. Areal-Averaged Spectral Surface Albedo in an Atlantic Coastal Area: Estimation from Ground-Based Transmission. United States. doi:10.3390/atmos8070123.
Kassianov, Evgueni, Barnard, James, Flynn, Connor, Riihimaki, Laura, Berg, Larry K., and Rutan, David A.. 2017. "Areal-Averaged Spectral Surface Albedo in an Atlantic Coastal Area: Estimation from Ground-Based Transmission". United States. doi:10.3390/atmos8070123. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1372970.
@article{osti_1372970,
title = {Areal-Averaged Spectral Surface Albedo in an Atlantic Coastal Area: Estimation from Ground-Based Transmission},
author = {Kassianov, Evgueni and Barnard, James and Flynn, Connor and Riihimaki, Laura and Berg, Larry K. and Rutan, David A.},
abstractNote = {Tower-based data combined with high-resolution satellite products have been used to produce surface albedo at various spatial scales over land. Because tower-based albedo data are available at only a few sites, surface albedos using these combined data are spatially limited. Moreover, tower-based albedo data are not representative of highly heterogeneous regions. To produce areal-averaged and spectrally-resolved surface albedo for regions with various degrees of surface heterogeneity, we have developed a transmission-based retrieval and demonstrated its feasibility for relatively homogeneous land surfaces. Here we demonstrate its feasibility for a highly heterogeneous coastal region. We use the atmospheric transmission measured during a 19-month period (June 2009 – December 2010) by a ground-based Multi-Filter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (MFRSR) at five wavelengths (0.415, 0.5, 0.615, 0.673 and 0.87 µm) at the Department of Energy’s Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Mobile Facility (AMF) site located on Graciosa Island. We compare the MFRSR-retrieved areal-averaged surface albedo with albedo derived from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) observations, and also a composite-based albedo. Lastly, we demonstrate that these three methods produce similar spectral signatures of surface albedo; however, the MFRSR-retrieved albedo, is higher on average (≤0.04) than the MODIS-based areal-averaged surface albedo and the largest difference occurs in winter.},
doi = {10.3390/atmos8070123},
journal = {Atmosphere (Basel)},
number = 8,
volume = 8,
place = {United States},
year = 2017,
month = 7
}

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  • Areal-averaged albedos are particularly difficult to measure in coastal regions, because the surface is not homogenous, consisting of a sharp demarcation between land and water. With this difficulty in mind, we evaluate a simple retrieval of areal-averaged surface albedo using ground-based measurements of atmospheric transmission alone under fully overcast conditions. To illustrate the performance of our retrieval, we find the areal-averaged albedo using measurements from the Multi-Filter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (MFRSR) at five wavelengths (415, 500, 615, 673, and 870 nm). These MFRSR data are collected at a coastal site in Graciosa Island, Azores supported by the U.S. Department ofmore » Energy’s (DOE’s) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program. The areal-averaged albedos obtained from the MFRSR are compared with collocated and coincident Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) white-sky albedo at four nominal wavelengths (470, 560, 670 and 860 nm). These comparisons are made during a 19-month period (June 2009 - December 2010). We also calculate composite-based spectral values of surface albedo by a weighted-average approach using estimated fractions of major surface types observed in an area surrounding this coastal site. Taken as a whole, these three methods of finding albedo show spectral and temporal similarities, and suggest that our simple, transmission-based technique holds promise, but with estimated errors of about ±0.03. Additional work is needed to reduce this uncertainty in areas with inhomogeneous surfaces.« less
  • We present here a simple retrieval of the areal-averaged and spectrally resolved surface albedo using only ground-based measurements of atmospheric transmission under fully overcast conditions. Our retrieval is based on a one-line equation and widely accepted assumptions regarding the weak spectral dependence of cloud optical properties in the visible and near-infrared spectral range. The feasibility of our approach for the routine determinations of albedo is demonstrated for different landscapes with various degrees of heterogeneity using three sets of measurements:(1) spectrally resolved atmospheric transmission from Multi-Filter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (MFRSR) at wavelength 415, 500, 615, 673, and 870 nm, (2) tower-basedmore » measurements of local surface albedo at the same wavelengths, and (3) areal-averaged surface albedo at four wavelengths (470, 560, 670 and 860 nm) from collocated and coincident Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) observations. These integrated datasets cover both long (2008-2013) and short (April-May, 2010) periods at the ARM Southern Great Plains (SGP) site and the NOAA Table Mountain site, respectively. The calculated root mean square error (RMSE), which is defined here as the root mean squared difference between the MODIS-derived surface albedo and the retrieved area-averaged albedo, is quite small (RMSE≤0.01) and comparable with that obtained previously by other investigators for the shortwave broadband albedo. Good agreement between the tower-based daily averages of surface albedo for the completely overcast and non-overcast conditions is also demonstrated. This agreement suggests that our retrieval originally developed for the overcast conditions likely will work for non-overcast conditions as well.« less
  • We introduce and evaluate a simple retrieval of areal-averaged surface albedo using ground-based measurements of atmospheric transmission alone at five wavelengths (415, 500, 615, 673 and 870nm), under fully overcast conditions. Our retrieval is based on a one-line semi-analytical equation and widely accepted assumptions regarding the weak spectral dependence of cloud optical properties, such as cloud optical depth and asymmetry parameter, in the visible and near-infrared spectral range. To illustrate the performance of our retrieval, we use as input measurements of spectral atmospheric transmission from Multi-Filter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (MFRSR). These MFRSR data are collected at two well-established continental sitesmore » in the United States supported by the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program and National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). The areal-averaged albedos obtained from the MFRSR are compared with collocated and coincident Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) white-sky albedo. In particular, these comparisons are made at four MFRSR wavelengths (500, 615, 673 and 870nm) and for four seasons (winter, spring, summer and fall) at the ARM site using multi-year (2008-2013) MFRSR and MODIS data. Good agreement, on average, for these wavelengths results in small values (≤0.01) of the corresponding root mean square errors (RMSEs) for these two sites. The obtained RMSEs are comparable with those obtained previously for the shortwave albedos (MODIS-derived versus tower-measured) for these sites during growing seasons. We also demonstrate good agreement between tower-based daily-averaged surface albedos measured for “nearby” overcast and non-overcast days. Thus, our retrieval originally developed for overcast conditions likely can be extended for non-overcast days by interpolating between overcast retrievals.« less
  • A retrieval method was developed to estimate the solar backscatter ultraviolet (SBUV) satellite albedo for the ozone profiler wavelengths using ground-based ultraviolet measurements. For the present investigation the Umkehr was used as the ground-based ultraviolet measurement. Simulated SBUV data and Umkehr data theoretically computed from a priori ozone profiles observed by the SAGE II satellite were used to develop the retrieval algorithm and to test its capability. The test indicated that albedos for the SBUV ozone profiler wavelengths should allow estimates to a precision of [plus minus]5% or better, depending on the accuracy of the ultraviolet measurement. Retrievals using actualmore » Umkehr observations were also performed to provide a preliminary look at the magnitude and annual variation of retrieved albedos. A case study was performed, comparing retrieved albedos with SBUV-measured albedos. The SBUV albedo change was seen to be approximately twice as large as the albedo changes estimated by the Umkehr method. Results of the investigation suggest that the method of estimation may be useful for determining the drift rate of the SBUV calibration. 20 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.« less
  • In this study, we derive a comprehensive forward model for the data collected by stripmap synthetic aperture radar (SAR) that is linear in the ground reflectivity parameters. It is also shown that if the noise model is additive, then the forward model fits into the linear statistical model framework, and the ground reflectivity parameters can be estimated by statistical methods. We derive the maximum likelihood (ML) estimates for the ground reflectivity parameters in the case of additive white Gaussian noise. Furthermore, we show that obtaining the ML estimates of the ground reflectivity requires two steps. The first step amounts tomore » a cross-correlation of the data with a model of the data acquisition parameters, and it is shown that this step has essentially the same processing as the so-called convolution back-projection algorithm. The second step is a complete system inversion that is capable of mitigating the sidelobes of the spatially variant impulse responses remaining after the correlation processing. We also state the Cramer-Rao lower bound (CRLB) for the ML ground reflectivity estimates.We show that the CRLB is linked to the SAR system parameters, the flight path of the SAR sensor, and the image reconstruction grid.We demonstrate the ML image formation and the CRLB bound for synthetically generated data.« less