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Title: High energy neutrinos from the tidal disruption of stars

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Journal Article: Publisher's Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Physical Review D
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 95; Journal Issue: 12; Related Information: CHORUS Timestamp: 2017-06-02 22:11:11; Journal ID: ISSN 2470-0010
American Physical Society
Country of Publication:
United States

Citation Formats

Lunardini, Cecilia, and Winter, Walter. High energy neutrinos from the tidal disruption of stars. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.1103/PhysRevD.95.123001.
Lunardini, Cecilia, & Winter, Walter. High energy neutrinos from the tidal disruption of stars. United States. doi:10.1103/PhysRevD.95.123001.
Lunardini, Cecilia, and Winter, Walter. Fri . "High energy neutrinos from the tidal disruption of stars". United States. doi:10.1103/PhysRevD.95.123001.
title = {High energy neutrinos from the tidal disruption of stars},
author = {Lunardini, Cecilia and Winter, Walter},
abstractNote = {},
doi = {10.1103/PhysRevD.95.123001},
journal = {Physical Review D},
number = 12,
volume = 95,
place = {United States},
year = {Fri Jun 02 00:00:00 EDT 2017},
month = {Fri Jun 02 00:00:00 EDT 2017}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
This content will become publicly available on June 2, 2018
Publisher's Accepted Manuscript

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Cited by: 4works
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  • The recently discovered high-energy transient Swift J164449.3+573451 (Sw J1644+57) is thought to arise from the tidal disruption of a passing star by a dormant massive black hole. Modeling of the broadband emission suggests the presence of a powerful relativistic jet, which contributes dominantly to the observed x-ray emission. Here we suggest that protons can be accelerated to ultrahigh energies by internal shocks occurring in the jets, but their flux is insufficient to account for the observed flux of ultrahigh-energy cosmic rays. High-energy protons can produce {approx}0.1-10 PeV neutrinos through photomeson interactions with x-ray photons. The large x-ray fluence (7x10{sup -4}more » erg cm{sup -2}) and high photopion efficiency, together with the insignificant cooling of secondary mesons, result in bright neutrino emission expected from Sw J1644+57 if the jet composition is matter-dominated. One to several neutrinos may be detected by a Km{sup 3}-scale detector from one tidal disruption event similar to Sw J1644+57, thereby providing a powerful probe of the composition of the jets.« less
  • X-ray and γ-ray observations by the Swift satellite revealed that a fraction of tidal disruption events (TDEs) have relativistic jets. Jetted TDEs have been considered to be potential sources of very-high-energy cosmic-rays and neutrinos. In this work, using semi-analytical methods, we calculate neutrino spectra of X-ray bright TDEs with powerful jets and dark TDEs with possible choked jets, respectively. We estimate their neutrino fluxes and find that non-detection would give us an upper limit on the baryon loading of the jet luminosity contained in cosmic-rays ξ {sub cr} ≲ 20–50 for Sw J1644+57. We show that X-ray bright TDEs makemore » a sub-dominant (≲5%–10%) contribution to IceCube’s diffuse neutrino flux, and study possible contributions of X-ray dark TDEs given that particles are accelerated in choked jets or disk winds. We discuss future prospects for multi-messenger searches of the brightest TDEs.« less
  • The centers of most known galaxies host supermassive black holes (SMBHs). In orbit around these black holes are a centrally concentrated distribution of stars, both in single and in binary systems. Occasionally, these stars are perturbed onto orbits that bring them close to the SMBH. If the star is in a binary system, the three-body interaction with the SMBH can lead to large changes in orbital energy, depositing one of the two stars on a tightly-bound orbit, and its companion into a hyperbolic orbit that may escape the galaxy. In this Letter, we show that the disruption of solitary starsmore » can also lead to large positive increases in orbital energy. The kick velocity depends on the amount of mass the star loses at pericenter, but not on the ratio of black hole to stellar mass, and are at most the star's own escape velocity. We find that these kicks are usually too small to result in the ejection of stars from the Milky Way, but can eject the stars from the black hole's sphere of influence, reducing their probability of being disrupted again. We estimate that {approx} 10{sup 5} stars, {approx} 1% of all stars within 10 pc of the galactic center, are likely to have had mass removed by the central black hole through tidal interaction, and speculate that these 'turbovelocity' stars will at first be redder, but eventually bluer, and always brighter than their unharassed peers.« less
  • One of the puzzles associated with tidal disruption event candidates (TDEs) is that there is a dichotomy between the color temperatures of a few × 10{sup 4} K for TDEs discovered with optical and UV telescopes and the color temperatures of a few × 10{sup 5}–10{sup 6} K for TDEs discovered with X-ray satellites. Here, we propose that high-temperature TDEs are produced when the tidal debris of a disrupted star self-intersects relatively close to the supermassive black hole, in contrast to the more distant self-intersection that leads to lower color temperatures. In particular, we note from simple ballistic considerations thatmore » greater apsidal precession in an orbit is the key to closer self-intersection. Thus, larger values of β, the ratio of the tidal radius to the pericenter distance of the initial orbit, are more likely to lead to higher temperatures of more compact disks that are super-Eddington and geometrically and optically thick. For a given star and β, apsidal precession also increases for larger black hole masses, but larger black hole masses imply a lower temperature at the Eddington luminosity. Thus, the expected dependence of the temperature on the mass of the black hole is non-monotonic. We find that in order to produce a soft X-ray temperature TDE, a deep plunging stellar orbit with β > 3 is needed and a black hole mass of ≲5 × 10{sup 6}M{sub ⊙} is favored. Although observations of TDEs are comparatively scarce and are likely dominated by selection effects, it is encouraging that both expectations are consistent with current data.« less
  • We examine whether disrupted binary stars can fuel black hole growth. In this mechanism, tidal disruption produces a single hypervelocity star (HVS) ejected at high velocity and a former companion star bound to the black hole. After a cluster of bound stars forms, orbital diffusion allows the black hole to accrete stars by tidal disruption at a rate comparable to the capture rate. In the Milky Way, HVSs and the S star cluster imply similar rates of 10{sup -5} to 10{sup -3} yr{sup -1} for binary disruption. These rates are consistent with estimates for the tidal disruption rate in nearbymore » galaxies and imply significant black hole growth from disrupted binaries on 10 Gyr timescales.« less