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Title: Phosphorus and nitrogen recycle following algal bio-crude production via continuous hydrothermal liquefaction

Abstract

Phosphorus and nitrogen are essential components of microalgal growth media. Critical to a wide range of biochemical processes, they commonly limit primary productivity. Recycling elemental phosphorus and fixed nitrogen after fuel conversion via hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) of algae biomass reduces the need for mined phosphorus and synthetic nitrogen resources. We used scenedesmus obliquus DOE 0152.Z and Chlorella sorokiniana DOE1412 as test organisms in assessing nutrient recycle of phosphorus from filtered solids collected downstream of the HTL reactor and nitrogen collected from the aqueous phase after gravimetric biocrude separation. Maximum specific growth rates were measured in growth media using HTL waste as the sole source of either phosphorus or nitrogen and were compared to an algal growth medium control (BG-11). The maximum specific growth rate of both organisms in the recycled phosphorus medium were nearly identical to rates observed in the control medium. Both organisms showed significantly reduced growth rates in the recycled nitrogen medium. C. sorokiniana DOE1412 adapted after several days of exposure whereas S. obliquus DOE0152.Z exhibited poor adaptability to the recycled nitrogen medium. After adaptation, growth rates observed with C. sorokiniana DOE1412 in the recycled nitrogen medium were 3.02 (± 0.13) day -1, 89% of the control mediummore » (3.40 ± 0.21). We further tested maximum specific growth rates of C. sorokiniana DOE1412 in a medium derived entirely from HTL byproducts, completely replacing all components including nitrogen and phosphorus. In this medium we observed rates of 2.70 ± 0.05 day -1, 79% of the control. By adding trace metals to this recycled medium we improved growth rates significantly to 3.10 ± 0.10, 91% of the control, which indicates a critical element is lost in the conversion process. Recycling elemental resources such as phosphorus and nitrogen from the HTL biofuel conversion process can provide a significant reduction in media cost and improves the prospects for industrial scale, algae-based biofuels.« less

Authors:
 [1];  [1];  [1];  [2];  [2];  [2];  [2]
  1. Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Sequim, WA (United States). Marine Sciences Lab.
  2. Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States). Chemical and Biological Process Development Group
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)
OSTI Identifier:
1372498
Report Number(s):
PNNL-SA-124518
Journal ID: ISSN 2211-9264; PII: S2211926416308384
Grant/Contract Number:
AC05-76RL01830
Resource Type:
Journal Article: Published Article
Journal Name:
Algal Research
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 26; Journal ID: ISSN 2211-9264
Publisher:
Elsevier
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
09 BIOMASS FUELS; Algae biofuel; Nutrient; Resource assessment; Maximum specific growth rates; Sustainability; HTL; algae; biofuel; sustainability; Resource Assessment; Microalgal growth rates

Citation Formats

Edmundson, S., Huesemann, M., Kruk, R., Lemmon, T., Billing, J., Schmidt, A., and Anderson, D.. Phosphorus and nitrogen recycle following algal bio-crude production via continuous hydrothermal liquefaction. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.1016/j.algal.2017.07.016.
Edmundson, S., Huesemann, M., Kruk, R., Lemmon, T., Billing, J., Schmidt, A., & Anderson, D.. Phosphorus and nitrogen recycle following algal bio-crude production via continuous hydrothermal liquefaction. United States. doi:10.1016/j.algal.2017.07.016.
Edmundson, S., Huesemann, M., Kruk, R., Lemmon, T., Billing, J., Schmidt, A., and Anderson, D.. 2017. "Phosphorus and nitrogen recycle following algal bio-crude production via continuous hydrothermal liquefaction". United States. doi:10.1016/j.algal.2017.07.016.
@article{osti_1372498,
title = {Phosphorus and nitrogen recycle following algal bio-crude production via continuous hydrothermal liquefaction},
author = {Edmundson, S. and Huesemann, M. and Kruk, R. and Lemmon, T. and Billing, J. and Schmidt, A. and Anderson, D.},
abstractNote = {Phosphorus and nitrogen are essential components of microalgal growth media. Critical to a wide range of biochemical processes, they commonly limit primary productivity. Recycling elemental phosphorus and fixed nitrogen after fuel conversion via hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) of algae biomass reduces the need for mined phosphorus and synthetic nitrogen resources. We used scenedesmus obliquus DOE 0152.Z and Chlorella sorokiniana DOE1412 as test organisms in assessing nutrient recycle of phosphorus from filtered solids collected downstream of the HTL reactor and nitrogen collected from the aqueous phase after gravimetric biocrude separation. Maximum specific growth rates were measured in growth media using HTL waste as the sole source of either phosphorus or nitrogen and were compared to an algal growth medium control (BG-11). The maximum specific growth rate of both organisms in the recycled phosphorus medium were nearly identical to rates observed in the control medium. Both organisms showed significantly reduced growth rates in the recycled nitrogen medium. C. sorokiniana DOE1412 adapted after several days of exposure whereas S. obliquus DOE0152.Z exhibited poor adaptability to the recycled nitrogen medium. After adaptation, growth rates observed with C. sorokiniana DOE1412 in the recycled nitrogen medium were 3.02 (± 0.13) day-1, 89% of the control medium (3.40 ± 0.21). We further tested maximum specific growth rates of C. sorokiniana DOE1412 in a medium derived entirely from HTL byproducts, completely replacing all components including nitrogen and phosphorus. In this medium we observed rates of 2.70 ± 0.05 day-1, 79% of the control. By adding trace metals to this recycled medium we improved growth rates significantly to 3.10 ± 0.10, 91% of the control, which indicates a critical element is lost in the conversion process. Recycling elemental resources such as phosphorus and nitrogen from the HTL biofuel conversion process can provide a significant reduction in media cost and improves the prospects for industrial scale, algae-based biofuels.},
doi = {10.1016/j.algal.2017.07.016},
journal = {Algal Research},
number = ,
volume = 26,
place = {United States},
year = 2017,
month = 7
}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
Publisher's Version of Record at 10.1016/j.algal.2017.07.016

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  • Phosphorus and nitrogen are essential components of microalgal growth media. Critical to a wide range of biochemical processes, they commonly limit primary productivity. Recycling elemental phosphorus and fixed nitrogen after fuel conversion via hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) of algae biomass reduces the need for mined phosphorus and synthetic nitrogen resources. We used scenedesmus obliquus DOE 0152.Z and Chlorella sorokiniana DOE1412 as test organisms in assessing nutrient recycle of phosphorus from filtered solids collected downstream of the HTL reactor and nitrogen collected from the aqueous phase after gravimetric biocrude separation. Maximum specific growth rates were measured in growth media using HTL wastemore » as the sole source of either phosphorus or nitrogen and were compared to an algal growth medium control (BG-11). The maximum specific growth rate of both organisms in the recycled phosphorus medium were nearly identical to rates observed in the control medium. Both organisms showed significantly reduced growth rates in the recycled nitrogen medium. C. sorokiniana DOE1412 adapted after several days of exposure whereas S. obliquus DOE0152.Z exhibited poor adaptability to the recycled nitrogen medium. After adaptation, growth rates observed with C. sorokiniana DOE1412 in the recycled nitrogen medium were 3.02 (± 0.13) day -1, 89% of the control medium (3.40 ± 0.21). We further tested maximum specific growth rates of C. sorokiniana DOE1412 in a medium derived entirely from HTL byproducts, completely replacing all components including nitrogen and phosphorus. In this medium we observed rates of 2.70 ± 0.05 day -1, 79% of the control. By adding trace metals to this recycled medium we improved growth rates significantly to 3.10 ± 0.10, 91% of the control, which indicates a critical element is lost in the conversion process. Recycling elemental resources such as phosphorus and nitrogen from the HTL biofuel conversion process can provide a significant reduction in media cost and improves the prospects for industrial scale, algae-based biofuels.« less
  • Phosphorus and nitrogen are essential components of microalgal growth media. Critical to a wide range of biochemical processes, they commonly limit primary productivity. Recycling elemental phosphorus and fixed nitrogen after fuel conversion via hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) of algae biomass reduces the need for mined phosphorus and synthetic nitrogen resources. Scenedesmus obliquus DOE 0152.Z and Chlorella sorokiniana DOE1412 were used as test organisms in assessing nutrient recycle of phosphorus from filtered solids collected downstream of the HTL reactor and nitrogen collected from the aqueous phase after gravimetric biocrude separation. Maximum specific growth rates were measured in growth media using HTL wastemore » as the sole source of either phosphorus or nitrogen and were compared to an algal growth medium control (BG-11). The maximum specific growth rate of both organisms in the recycled phosphorus medium were nearly identical to rates observed in the control medium. Both organisms showed significantly reduced growth rates in the recycled nitrogen medium. C. sorokiniana DOE1412 adapted after several days of exposure whereas S. obliquus DOE0152.Z exhibited poor adaptability to the recycled nitrogen medium. After adaptation, growth rates observed with C. sorokiniana DOE1412 in the recycled nitrogen medium were 3.02 (±0.13) day-1, 89% of the control medium (3.40 ±0.21). We further tested maximum specific growth rates of C. sorokiniana DOE1412 in a medium derived entirely from HTL byproducts, completely replacing all components including nitrogen and phosphorus. In this medium we observed rates of 2.70 ±0.05 day-1, 79% of the control. Adding trace metals to this recycled medium improved growth rates significantly to 3.10 ±0.10, 91% of the control, indicating a critical element is lost in the conversion process. Recycling elemental resources such as phosphorus and nitrogen from the HTL biofuel conversion process can provide a significant reduction in media cost and improves the prospects for industrial scale, algae-based biofuels.« less
  • Even though hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) is a promising route to produce crude oils (referred to as 'green crude'), the molecular composition of the nitrogen fraction of such green crude oils is not fully understood. The goal of this work was to identify and quantify the fraction of fatty amides in green crude oils obtained from five different samples derived from Desmodesmus armatus, Tetraselmis sp., and Chlorella sp. biomass treated under different HTL conditions (260 or 340 degrees C as batch or continuous processes). The goal of this work was to elucidate the nature of the high nitrogen content of themore » green crude oils. We identified at least 19 distinct fatty amides present in green crude oils and quantified them based on relevant standards in purified fractions after functional group-based separation and enrichment. It was not known how much these compounds contributed to the oils or which molecular fraction they are associated with. We found that fatty amides exclusively partitioned with the neutral fraction of the oils and belonged mainly to one of five categories, based on their functional group substitution, i.e., fatty amides, monomethyl, dimethyl, monoethanolamide, and diethanolamide. The quantification of fatty amides in the neutral oil fraction was based on respective fatty amide standards, after verification of consistency in response factors between molecules with different substitutions of the amide group. Here, we found that the amount of fatty amides found in each of the five samples varied considerably and ranged between 1.4 and 3.0% of the green crude oils, with the highest levels detected in the sample with the highest oil content, after HTL of biomass derived from a nutrient deprived Chlorella sp. culture.« less
  • Abstract not provided.
  • Two algal feedstocks were prepared for direct comparison of their properties when converted to liquid hydrocarbon fuel. The first feedstock was prepared by growing an algal strain phototrophically using a bio-film based approach. The second feedstock employed the same algal strain but was stressed heterotrophically to significantly increase the lipid concentration. The algal feedstocks were converted to liquid hydrocarbon fuels. First, the whole algae (i.e. not defatted or lipid extracted) were converted to an intermediate biocrude using continuous hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) at 350°C and 3000 psig. The biocrudes were subsequently upgraded via catalytic hydrotreating (HT) at 400°C and 1500 psigmore » to remove oxygen and nitrogen as well as increase the hydrogen-to-carbon ratio. The yield and composition of the products from HTL and HT processing of the feedstocks are compared. A techno-economic analysis of the process for converting each feedstock to liquid fuels was also conducted. The capital and operating costs associated with converting the feedstocks to finished transportation fuels are reported. A fuel minimum selling price is presented as a function of the cost of the algal feedstock delivered to the HTL conversion plant.« less