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Title: Periodic Table: A New Perspective.

Abstract

Abstract not provided.

Authors:
; ; ;
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)
OSTI Identifier:
1372174
Report Number(s):
SAND2016-6751D
645226
DOE Contract Number:
AC04-94AL85000
Resource Type:
Conference
Resource Relation:
Conference: Proposed for presentation at the Student Intern Symposium held July 26, 2016 in Albuquerque, NM.
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English

Citation Formats

Franco, Manuel Uriel, Armijo, Matthew, Sisson, Richard, and Hattar, Khalid Mikhiel. Periodic Table: A New Perspective.. United States: N. p., 2016. Web.
Franco, Manuel Uriel, Armijo, Matthew, Sisson, Richard, & Hattar, Khalid Mikhiel. Periodic Table: A New Perspective.. United States.
Franco, Manuel Uriel, Armijo, Matthew, Sisson, Richard, and Hattar, Khalid Mikhiel. Fri . "Periodic Table: A New Perspective.". United States. doi:. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1372174.
@article{osti_1372174,
title = {Periodic Table: A New Perspective.},
author = {Franco, Manuel Uriel and Armijo, Matthew and Sisson, Richard and Hattar, Khalid Mikhiel},
abstractNote = {Abstract not provided.},
doi = {},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {Fri Jul 01 00:00:00 EDT 2016},
month = {Fri Jul 01 00:00:00 EDT 2016}
}

Conference:
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  • Abstract not provided.
  • The modern Periodic Table derives principally from the work of the great Russian scientist Dimitri Mendeleev, who in 1869 enunciated a 'periodic law' that the properties of the elements are a periodic function of their atomic weights, and arranged the 65 known elements in a 'periodic table'. Fundamentally, every column in the main body of the Periodic Table is a grouping of elements that display similar chemical and physical behavior. Similar properties are therefore exhibited by elements with widely different mass. Chemical periodicity is central to the study of chemistry, and no other generalization comes close to its ability tomore » systematize and rationalize known chemical facts. With the development of atomic theory, and an understanding of the electronic structure of atoms, chemical periodicity and the periodic table now find their natural explanation in the electronic structure of atoms. Moving from left to right along any row, the elements are arranged sequentially according to nuclear charge (the atomic number). Electrons counter balance that nuclear charge, hence each successive element has one more electron in its configuration. The electron configuration, or distribution of electrons among atomic orbitals, may be determined by application of the Pauli principle (paired spin in the same orbital) and the aufbau principle (which outlines the order of filling of electrons into shells of orbitals - s, p, d, f, etc.) such that in a given atom, no two electrons may have all four quantum numbers identical. In 1939, only three elements were known to be heavier than actinium: thorium, protactinium, and uranium. All three exhibited variable oxidation states and a complex chemistry. Thorium, protactinium and uranium were assumed to be d-transition metals and were placed in the Periodic Table under hafnium, tantalum, and tungsten, respectively. By 1940, McMillan and Abelson bombarded uranium atoms with slow neutrons and successfully identified atoms of element 93, which they named neptunium after the planet Neptune. This rapidly set the stage for the discovery of the next succeeding element, plutonium (Seaborg, McMillan, Kennedy, and Wahl, 1940), named after the next planet away from the Sun, Pluto. The newly discovered elements were presumed to fit comfortably in the Periodic Table under rhenium and osmium, respectively. However, subsequent tracer chemical experiments showed that neptunium and plutonium were closer in their chemical properties to uranium than their presumed homologues, rhenium and osmium. Spectroscopic evidence also indicated that the new elements were not typical transition elements, but had f-electrons in their valence shell. Thus, several researchers, including McMillan and Wahl, and Zachariasen at Los Alamos, suggested that these elements might be part of a second inner-transition series in which the 5f-electron subshell was being filled. It was not clear, however, where the new series would begin. McMillian had proposed a 'uraninide series' that started with neptunium, but attempts to isolate elements with atomic numbers 95 and 96 based on assumed similarities to uranium were unsuccessful. Both Wahl and Zacharias en had proposed a thoride series that started with protactinium. In 1944, Seaborg proposed that the series started with thorium, and that all of the elements heavier than actinium constituted an 'actinide' series similar to the lanthanides. Because the 5f-shell began filling in the same relative position as the 4f-shell, the electronic configuration of elements in the two series would be similar. Guided by the hypothesis that elements 95 and 96 were homologues of europium and gadolinium, new experiments were designed and the elements were uniquely synthesized and separated from all others. The new elements were subsequently named americium and curium. Seaborg's 'Actinide Concept' thus played a major role in the discovery of the transplutonium elements. It provided the framework that supported synthesis, isolation, and identification of the succeeding actinide elements berkelium through lawrencium and beyond to the element with Atomic Number 118. But as research has progressed in the study of the actinide elements, it has become clear that the 5f series has a unique chemistry that is distinct from the lanthanides. One of the focal points of study in actinide research has been to better define the scope and limitations of the actinide concept. Seaborg's actinide concept of heavy element electronic structure, prediction that the actinides form a transition series analogous to the rare earth series of lanthanide elements, is now well accepted in the scientific community and included in all standard configurations of the Periodic Table.« less
  • The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission staff has developed a program of Systematic Regulatory Analysis (SRA). The purpose of this program is to ensure that important technical issues related to compliance with 10 CFR Part 60 will be identified before receipt of a license application. A plan is being developed to review the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) demonstration of compliance in the license application for each part of the regulation. Under the siting criteria of NRC`s Part 60, one of the potentially adverse conditions is the possibility that the water table may rise high enough to saturate a repository inmore » the unsaturated zone. DOE must evaluate this and other conditions in a license application for a geologic repository site. DOE`s evaluation must show compliance with the requirements of Part 60 with reasonable assurance. This paper describes the NRC staff`s preliminary plans to review DOE`s demonstration of compliance, including assumptions about a future rise of the water table.« less
  • The modern theory of superconductivity, based upon the BCS to Bose-Einstein transition, is applied to the periodic table of the elements, in order to isolate the essential features of high temperature superconductivity and to predict its occurrence within the periodic table. It is predicted that Sodium-Ammonia, Sodium Zinc Phosphide and Bismuth (I) Iodide are promising materials for experimental explorations of high temperature superconductivity.